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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________ to ___________
https://cdn.kscope.io/aba4eb9eaf3dace06ca99f9c1177a998-spb-20200930_g1.jpg
Commission File No.Name of Registrant, State of Incorporation,
Address of Principal Offices, and Telephone No.
IRS Employer Identification No.
1-4219Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.74-1339132
(a Delaware corporation)
3001 Deming Way, Middleton, WI 53562
(608) 275-3340
www.spectrumbrands.com
333-192634-03SB/RH Holdings, LLC27-2812840
(a Delaware limited liability company)
3001 Deming Way, Middleton, WI 53562
(608) 275-3340
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
RegistrantTitle of each className of each exchange on which registered
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.Common Stock, Par Value $0.01New York Stock Exchange
SB/RH Holdings, LLCNoneNone
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrants are well-known seasoned issuers, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.Yes
No
SB/RH Holdings, LLCYes
No
Indicate by check mark if the registrants are not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.Yes
No
SB/RH Holdings, LLCYes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrants (1) have filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.Yes
No
SB/RH Holdings, LLCYes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrants have submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.Yes
No
SB/RH Holdings, LLCYes
No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.
SB/RH Holdings, LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
Registrant
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated FilerNon-accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting CompanyEmerging Growth Company
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.X
SB/RH Holdings, LLCX
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.
SB/RH Holdings, LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.Yes
No
SB/RH Holdings, LLCYes
No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.Yes
No
SB/RH Holdings, LLCYes
No
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. was approximately $1,502 million based upon the closing price on the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter (March 29, 2020). For the sole purposes of making this calculation, term “non-affiliate” has been interpreted to exclude directors and executive officers and other affiliates of the registrant. Exclusion of shares held by any person should not be construed as a conclusion by the registrant, or an admission by any such person, or that such person is an “affiliate” of the Company, as defined by applicable securities law.
As of November 16, 2020, there were outstanding 43,082,379 shares of Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.’s Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share.
SB/RH Holdings, LLC meets the conditions set forth in General Instruction I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and has therefore omitted the information otherwise called for by Items 10 to 13 of Form 10-K as allowed under General Instruction I(2)(c).
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.’s subsequent amendment to the Form 10-K to be filed within 120 days of September 30, 2020 are incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K in response to Part III, Items 10, 11, 12 and 13.
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SPECTRUM BRANDS HOLDINGS, INC.
SB/RH HOLDINGS, LLC
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Forward-Looking Statements
We have made or implied certain forward-looking statements in this report. All statements, other than statements of historical facts included in this report, including the statements under Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, regarding our business strategy, future operations, financial condition, estimated revenues, projected costs, projected synergies, prospects, plans and objectives of management, information concerning expected actions of third parties, and statements regarding the expected impact of the COVID-19 pandemic are forward-looking statements. When used in this report, the words anticipate, intend, plan, estimate, believe, expect, project, could, will, should, may and similar expressions are also intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain such identifying words.
Since these forward-looking statements are based upon our current expectations of future events and projections and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control and some of which may change rapidly, actual results or outcomes may differ materially from those expressed or implied herein, and you should not place undue reliance on these statements. Important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied herein include, without limitation: 
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our customers, employees, manufacturing facilities, suppliers, capital markets, and our financial condition, and results of operations, all of which tend to aggravate the other risks and uncertainties we face;
the impact of our indebtedness on our business, financial condition, and results of operations;
the impact of restrictions in our debt instruments on our ability to operate our business, finance our capital needs or pursue or expand business strategies;
any failure to comply with financial covenants and other provisions and restrictions of our debt instruments;
the effects of general economic conditions, including the impact of, and changes to tariffs and trade policies, inflation, recession or fears of a recession, depression or fears of a depression, labor costs and stock market volatility or monetary or fiscal policies in the countries where we do business;
the impact of fluctuations in commodity prices, costs or availability of raw materials or terms and conditions available from suppliers, including suppliers’ willingness to advance credit;
interest rate and exchange rate fluctuations;
the loss of, significant reduction in, or dependence upon, sales to any significant retail customer(s);
competitive promotional activity or spending by competitors, or price reductions by competitors;
the introduction of new product features or technological developments by competitors and/or the development of new competitors or competitive brands;
the impact of actions taken by significant stockholders;
changes in consumer spending preferences and demand for our products, particularly in light of the COVID-19 pandemic and economic stress;
our ability to develop and successfully introduce new products, protect our intellectual property and avoid infringing the intellectual property of third parties;
our ability to successfully identify, implement, achieve and sustain productivity improvements (including our Global Productivity Improvement Program), cost efficiencies (including at our manufacturing and distribution operations), and cost savings;
the seasonal nature of sales of certain of our products;
the effects of climate change and unusual weather activity as well as further natural disasters and pandemics;
the cost and effect of unanticipated legal, tax or regulatory proceedings or new laws or regulations (including environmental, public health and consumer protection regulations);
our discretion to conduct, suspend or discontinue our share repurchase program (including our discretion to conduct purchases, if any, in a variety of manners including open-market purchases or privately negotiated transactions);
public perception regarding the safety of products that we manufacture and sell, including the potential for environmental liabilities, product liability claims, litigation and other claims related to products manufactured by us and third parties;
the impact of existing, pending or threatened litigation, government regulation or other requirements or operating standards applicable to our business;
the impact of cybersecurity breaches or our actual or perceived failure to protect company and personal data, including our failure to comply with new and increasingly complex global data privacy regulations;
changes in accounting policies applicable to our business;
our ability to utilize net operating loss carry-forwards to offset tax liabilities from future taxable income;
the impact of expenses resulting from the implementation of new business strategies, divestitures or current and proposed restructuring activities;
our ability to successfully implement further acquisitions or dispositions and impact of any such transactions on our financial performance;
the unanticipated loss of key members of senior management and the transition of new members of our management teams to their new roles;
the effects of political or economic conditions, terrorist attacks, acts of war, natural disasters, public health concerns or other unrest in international markets;
the ability to achieve our goals regarding environmental, social, and governance practices; and
our increased reliance on third-party partners, suppliers, and distributors to achieve our business objectives.
Some of the above-mentioned factors are described in further detail in the sections entitled Risk Factors in our annual and quarterly reports (including this report), as applicable. You should assume the information appearing in this report is accurate only as of the end of the period covered by this report, or as otherwise specified, as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date. Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States (“U.S.”) and the rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, to reflect actual results or changes in factors or assumptions affecting such forward-looking statements.
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PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
This combined Form 10-K is being filed by Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. (“SBH”) and SB/RH Holdings, LLC (“SB/RH”) (collectively, the “Company”). SB/RH is a wholly-owned subsidiary of SBH and represents substantially all of its assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and operations. Thus, all information contained in this report relates to, and is filed by, SBH. Information that is specifically identified in this report as relating solely to SBH, such as its financial statements and its common stock, does not relate to and is not filed by SB/RH. SB/RH makes no representation as to that information. The terms “the Company,” “we,” and “our” as used in this report, refer to both SBH and its consolidated subsidiaries and SB/RH and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated.
Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are available free of charge through our website at www.spectrumbrands.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to the SEC. The SEC also maintains a website that contains our reports, proxy statements and other information at www.sec.gov. In addition, copies of our (i) Corporate Governance Guidelines, (ii) charters for the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, (iii) Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and (iv) Code of Ethics for the Principal Executive Officer and Senior Financial Officers are available on our website at www.spectrumbrands.com under “Investor Relations—Corporate Governance.” Copies will also be provided to any stockholder upon written request to the Investor Relations and Corporate Communications, Spectrum Brands, Inc. at 3001 Deming Way, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 or via electronic mail at investorrelations@spectrumbrands.com, or by contacting the Division Vice President (DVP), Investor Relations & Corporate Communications by telephone at (608) 278-6148.
General Overview
We are a diversified global branded consumer products and home essentials company.  We manage the business in four vertically integrated, product focused segments: (i) Hardware & Home Improvement (“HHI”), (ii) Home and Personal Care (“HPC”), (iii) Global Pet Care (“GPC”), and (iv) Home and Garden (“H&G”).  The Company manufactures, markets and distributes its products globally in the North America (“NA”), Europe, Middle East & Africa (“EMEA”), Latin America (“LATAM”) and Asia-Pacific (“APAC”) regions through a variety of trade channels, including retailers, wholesalers and distributors, original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), and construction companies. We enjoy strong name recognition in our regions under our various brands and patented technologies across multiple product categories. Global and geographic strategic initiatives and financial objectives are determined at the corporate level. Each segment is responsible for implementing defined strategic initiatives and achieving certain financial objectives and has a president or general manager responsible for sales and marketing initiatives and the financial results for all product lines within that segment. SB/RH is a wholly owned subsidiary of SBH. Spectrum Brands, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of SB/RH (“SBI”) incurred certain debt guaranteed by SB/RH and domestic subsidiaries of SBI. The following is an overview of the consolidated business showing the net sales by segment and geographic region sold (based upon destination) as a percentage of consolidated net sales for the year ended September 30, 2020.
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Our operating performance is influenced by a number of factors including: general economic conditions; foreign exchange fluctuations; trends in consumer markets; consumer confidence and preferences; our overall product line mix, including pricing and gross margin, which vary by product line and geographic market; pricing of certain raw materials and commodities; energy and fuel prices; and our general competitive position, especially as impacted by our competitors’ advertising and promotional activities and pricing strategies. See Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, included in Item 7 to this Annual Report, for further discussion of the consolidated operating results and segment operating results.

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Hardware and Home Improvement (HHI)
The following is an overview of net sales by product category and geographic region sold (based upon destination) for the year ended September 30, 2020
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Product Category
Products
Brands
Security
Residential locksets and door hardware including knobs, levers, deadbolts, handle sets, including electronic and connected locks
Kwikset®, Weiser®, Baldwin®, Tell Manufacturing®, and EZSET®
Plumbing
Kitchen and bath faucets and accessories
Pfister®
Hardware
Hinges, metal shapes, security hardware, track and sliding door hardware, gate hardware
National Hardware®, FANAL®
In some cases, we supply product to customers who have private label brand offerings. We also have supply and brand licensing arrangements used for some smaller lines of business and brands such as FANAL®. Certain of our residential lockset products incorporate patented SmartKey® technology that provides advanced security and easy re-keying.
The sales force of the HHI business is aligned by brands, customers, and geographic regions. We have strong partnerships with a variety of customers including large home improvement centers, wholesale distributors, home builders, plumbers, home automation providers, and commercial contractors. A significant percentage of our sales are attributable to a limited group of retailer customers, including Home Depot and Lowe’s, which represented approximately 42% of segment sales for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020.
Primary competitors in security include Allegion (Schlage), Assa Abloy (Emtek, Yale) and private label brands such as Defiant. Primary competitors for plumbing include Masco (Delta), Fortune Brands (Moen), Kohler, American Standard and private label brands such as Glacier Bay.  Primary competitors for hardware include The Hillman Group, Hampton Products, Koch (Lehigh) and private label brands such as Crown Bolt.
Sales in our HHI segment primarily increase during the spring and summer periods (the Company’s third and fourth fiscal quarters). During the year ended September 30, 2020, HHI realized lower sales during the third quarter and incremental sales in the fourth quarter due to supply constraints and government mandated shutdowns attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. Segment sales by quarter as a percentage of annual net sales during the years ended September 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018 are as follows:
202020192018
First Quarter
22 %23 %24 %
Second Quarter
25 %24 %23 %
Third Quarter
21 %26 %27 %
Fourth Quarter
32 %27 %26 %
The principal raw materials used in manufacturing include brass, zinc, and steel that are sourced either on a global or regional basis. The prices of these raw materials are susceptible to fluctuations due to supply and demand trends, energy costs, transportation costs, government regulations and tariffs, changes in currency exchange rates, price controls, general economic conditions and other unforeseen circumstances. We have regularly engaged in forward purchase and hedging derivative transactions in an attempt to effectively manage certain raw material costs we expect to incur over the next 12 to 24 months.  Substantially all of our Pfister products are manufactured by third-party suppliers that are primarily located in the APAC region. We maintain ownership of most of the tooling used by our suppliers. We continually evaluate our manufacturing facilities’ capacity and related utilization. In general, we believe our existing facilities are adequate for our present and foreseeable needs. We continuously monitor and evaluate our supplier network for quality, cost, and manufacturing capacity.
Our research and development strategy is focused on new product development and performance enhancements of our existing products. We plan to continue to use our brand names, customer relationships and research and development efforts to introduce innovative products that offer enhanced value to consumers through new designs and improved functionality.

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Home and Personal Care (HPC)
The following is an overview of net sales by product category and geographic region sold (based upon destination) for the year ended September 30, 2020
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Product Category
Products
Brands
Home Appliances
Small kitchen appliances including toaster ovens, coffeemakers, slow cookers, blenders, hand mixers, grills, food processors, juicers, toasters, irons, kettles, and breadmakers
Black & Decker®, Russell Hobbs®, George Foreman®, Toastmaster®, Juiceman®, Farberware®, and Breadman®
Personal Care
Hair dryers, flat irons and straighteners, rotary and foil electric shavers, personal groomers, mustache and beard trimmers, body groomers, nose and ear trimmers, women's shavers, haircut kits and intense pulsed light hair removal systems
Remington®, LumaBella®
We license the Black & Decker® brand (“BDC”) in North America, Latin America (excluding Brazil) and the Caribbean for four core categories of household appliances: beverage products, food preparation products, garment care products and cooking products through a trademark license agreement with BDC through December 2021. Under the agreement, we agree to pay BDC royalties based on a percentage of sales, with minimum annual royalty payments of $15.0 million. The agreement also requires us to comply with maximum annual return rates for products. If BDC does not agree to renew the license agreement, we have 18 months to transition out of the brand name with no minimum royalty payments during such transition period and BDC has agreed to not compete in the four categories for five years after the end of the transition period. Upon request, BDC may elect to extend the license to use the Black & Decker® brand to certain additional product categories. BDC has approved several extensions of the license to additional categories and geographies.
We own the right to use the Remington® trademark for electric shavers, shaver accessories, grooming products and personal care products; and Remington Arms Company, Inc. (“Remington Arms”) owns the rights to use the trademark for firearms, sporting goods and products for industrial use, including industrial hand tools. The terms of a 1986 agreement between Remington Products, LLC and Remington Arms provides for the shared rights to use the trademark on products which are not considered “principal products of interest” for either company. We retain the trademark for nearly all products which we believe can benefit from the use of the brand name in our distribution channels.
HPC products are sold primarily to large retailers, online retailers, wholesalers, distributors, warehouse clubs, food and drug chains and specialty trade or retail outlets such as consumer electronics stores, department stores, discounters and other specialty stores. International distribution varies by region and is often executed on a country-by-country basis.  Our sales generally are made through the use of individual purchase orders. A significant percentage of our sales are attributable to a limited group of retailer customers, including Wal-Mart and Amazon, which represent approximately 34% of segment sales for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020.
Primary competitors for home appliances include Newell Brands (Sunbeam, Mr. Coffee, Crockpot, Oster), De’Longhi America (DeLonghi, Kenwood, Braun), SharkNinja (Shark, Ninja), Hamilton Beach Holding Co. (Hamilton Beach, Proctor Silex), Sensio, Inc. (Bella); SEB S.A.(T-fal, Krups, Rowenta), Whirlpool Corporation (Kitchen Aid), Conair Corporation (Cuisinart, Waring), Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips), Glen Dimplex (Morphy Richards) and private label brands for major retailers. Primary competitors in personal care include are Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Norelco), The Procter & Gamble Company (Braun), Conair Corporation, Wahl Clipper Corporation and Helen of Troy Limited.
Sales from electric personal care product categories tend to increase during the December holiday season (the Company’s first fiscal quarter), while small appliances sales increase from July through December primarily due to the increased demand by customers in the late summer for “back-to-school” sales (the Company’s fourth fiscal quarter) and in December for the holiday season. Our sales by quarter as a percentage of annual net sales during the years ended September 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018 are as follows:
202020192018
First Quarter
29 %30 %31 %
Second Quarter
21 %20 %21 %
Third Quarter
23 %23 %23 %
Fourth Quarter
27 %27 %25 %
Substantially all of our home appliances and personal care products are manufactured by third-party suppliers that are primarily located in the APAC region, the prices of which may be susceptible to changes in transportation costs, government regulations and tariffs, and changes in currency exchange rates. We maintain ownership of most of the tooling and molds used by our suppliers.
We continuously monitor and evaluate our supplier network for quality, cost, and manufacturing capacity. Our research and development strategy is focused on new product development and performance enhancements of our existing products. We plan to continue to use our brand names, customer relationships and research and development efforts to introduce innovative products that offer enhanced value to consumers through new designs and improved functionality.
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Global Pet Care (GPC)
The following is an overview of GPC net sales by product category and geographic region sold (based upon destination) for the year ended September 30, 2020
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Product Category
Products
Brands
Companion Animal
Rawhide chews, dog and cat clean-up, training, health and grooming products, small animal food and care products, rawhide-free dog treats, and wet and dry pet food for dogs and cats
8IN1® (8-in-1), Dingo®, Nature's Miracle®, Wild Harvest™, Littermaid®, Jungle®, Excel®, FURminator®, IAMS® (Europe only), Eukanuba® (Europe only), Healthy-Hide®, DreamBone®, SmartBones®, ProSense®, Perfect Coat®, eCOTRITION®, Birdola® and Digest-eeze®.
Aquatics
Consumer and commercial aquarium kits, stand-alone tanks; aquatics equipment such as filtration systems, heaters and pumps; and aquatics consumables such as fish food, water management and care
Tetra®, Marineland®, Whisper® and Instant Ocean®, GloFish®, OmegaOne® and OmegaSea®
We sell primarily to large retailers, pet superstores, online retailers, food and drug chains, warehouse clubs and other specialty retail outlets. International distribution varies by region and is often executed on a country-by-country basis.  Our sales generally are made through the use of individual purchase orders.  In addition to product sales, we also perform installation and maintenance services on commercial aquariums.  Live fish under our GloFish® brand are produced, marketed, and sold by independent third-party breeders through a supply and licensing agreement with the Company. On March 10, 2020, the Company entered into an asset purchase agreement with Omega Sea, LLC (“Omega”), a manufacturer and marketer of premium fish foods and consumable goods for the home and commercial aquarium markets, primarily consisting of the Omega One® brand. A significant percentage of our sales are attributable to a limited group of retailer customers, including Wal-Mart, Amazon and PetSmart (including PetSmart's majority share ownership in Chewy), which represent approximately 46% of segment sales for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020.
Primary competitors are Mars Corporation, the Hartz Mountain Corporation, and Central Garden & Pet Company which all sell a comprehensive line of pet supplies that compete across our product categories. The pet supplies product category is highly fragmented with no competitor holding a substantial market share and consists of small companies with limited product lines.
Sales remain fairly consistent throughout the year with little variation. Our sales by quarter as a percentage of annual net sales during the years ended September 30, 2020, 2019, and 2018 are as follows:
202020192018
First Quarter
21 %24 %25 %
Second Quarter
25 %25 %25 %
Third Quarter
25 %25 %24 %
Fourth Quarter
29 %26 %26 %
Rawhide products and certain Companion Animal products are produced at third-party suppliers in the APAC region. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, GPC closed its Rawhide manufacturing facilities in the LATAM region and in Cambodia. Alternative rawhide products are manufactured by third-party suppliers located in the APAC region and Mexico. Aquatics products are produced in our manufacturing plants located in the U.S. and Germany and are also produced at third-party suppliers in the APAC region. On March 29, 2020, the Company completed the sale of its dog and cat food (“DCF”) production facility and distribution center in Coevorden, Netherlands (the “Coevorden Operations”) pursuant to an agreement with United Petfood Producers NV (“UPP”). The Company entered into a third-party manufacturing agreement with UPP to produce DCF products sold and distributed in EMEA under the IAMS® and Eukanuba® brands.
We maintain ownership of most of the tooling and molds used by third-party suppliers.  We continually evaluate capacity at our manufacturing facilities and related utilization. In general, we believe our existing facilities are adequate for our present and foreseeable operating needs. Product purchased from third-party suppliers, especially those from the APAC regions, are susceptible to fluctuations in transportation costs, government regulations and tariffs, and changes in currency exchange rates. We continuously monitor and evaluate our supplier network for quality, cost, and manufacturing capacity.
Our research and development strategy is focused on new product development and performance enhancements of our existing products. We plan to continue to use our brand names, customer relationships and research and development efforts to introduce innovative products that offer enhanced value to consumers through new designs and improved functionality.

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Home and Garden (H&G)
The following is an overview of H&G net sales by product category and geographic region sold (based upon destination) for the year ended September 30, 2020
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Product Category
Products
Brands
Household
Household pest control solutions such as spider and scorpion killers; ant and roach killers; flying insect killers; insect foggers; wasp and hornet killers; and bedbug, flea and tick control products
Hot Shot®, Black Flag®, Real-Kill®, Ultra Kill®, The Ant Trap® (TAT), and Rid-A-Bug®.
Controls
Outdoor insect and weed control solutions, and animal repellents such as aerosols, granules, and ready-to-use sprays or hose-end ready-to-sprays
Spectracide®, Garden Safe®, Liquid Fence®, and EcoLogic®.
Repellents
Personal use pesticides and insect repellent products, including aerosols, lotions, pump sprays and wipes, yard sprays and citronella candles
Cutter® and Repel®.
We sell primarily to large retailers, home improvement centers, dollar stores, hardware stores, home and garden distributors, and food and drug retailers. We sell primarily in the U.S. with some distribution in LATAM and the Caribbean.  Our sales generally are made through the use of individual purchase orders.  A significant percentage of our sales are attributable to a limited group of retailer customers, including Wal-Mart, Home Depot and Lowe’s, which represent approximately 64% segment sales for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020.
Primary competitors are The Scotts Miracle-Gro Company (Scotts, Ortho, Roundup, Miracle-Gro, Tomcat); Central Garden & Pet (AMDRO, Sevin), SBM Company (BioAdvanced), S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. (Raid, OFF!); and Henkel AG & Co. KGaA (Combat).
Sales typically peak during the first six months of the calendar year (the Company’s second and third fiscal quarters) due to customer seasonal purchasing patterns and timing of promotional activities. Our sales by quarter as a percentage of annual net sales during the years ended September 30, 2020, 2019, and 2018 are as follows:
202020192018
First Quarter
%10 %10 %
Second Quarter
25 %27 %25 %
Third Quarter
38 %40 %42 %
Fourth Quarter
29 %23 %23 %
H&G currently produces the majority of its products in one facility in St. Louis, Missouri, with production primarily consisting of liquids and aerosols, and the remaining portion of products being produced by various third-party manufacturers, consisting of candles, baits & traps, and wipes. The main raw materials purchased are plastic bottles, steel aerosol cans, corrugate, active ingredients and bulk chemicals. The prices of these raw materials are susceptible to fluctuations due to supply and demand trends, energy costs, transportation costs, government regulations, and tariffs. We continuously monitor and evaluate our supplier network for quality, cost, and manufacturing capacity.
Our research and development strategy is focused on new product development and performance enhancements of our existing products. We plan to continue to use our brand names, customer relationships, and research and development efforts to introduce innovative products that offer enhanced value to consumers through new designs and improved functionality.

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Discontinued Operations
Global Batteries and Lighting (“GBL”)
On January 2, 2019, the Company completed the sale of its GBL business pursuant to the GBL acquisition agreement with Energizer Holdings, Inc. (“Energizer”) for cash proceeds of $1,956.2 million, resulting in a pre-tax gain on sale of $989.8 million, during the year ended September 30, 2019, including the estimated settlement of customary purchase price adjustments for working capital and assumed indebtedness, recognition of tax and legal indemnifications under the acquisition agreement and a contingent purchase price adjustment for the settlement of the divestiture of the Varta® consumer batteries business by Energizer. The Company’s assets and liabilities associated with GBL have been classified as held for sale and the respective operations have been classified as discontinued operations; and reported separately for all periods presented. GBL consists of consumer batteries products including alkaline batteries, zinc carbon batteries, nickel metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries, hearing aid batteries, battery chargers, battery-powered portable lighting products including flashlights and lanterns, and other specialty battery products primarily under the Rayovac® and Varta® brand, and other proprietary brand names pursuant to licensing arrangements with third parties. Refer to Note 3 – Divestitures to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for further discussion pertaining to the GBL divestiture. 
Global Auto Care (“GAC”)
On January 28, 2019, the Company completed the sale of its GAC business pursuant to the GAC acquisition agreement with Energizer for $938.7 million in cash proceeds and $242.1 million in stock consideration of common stock of Energizer, resulting in the write-down of net assets held for sale of $111.0 million, during the year ended September 30, 2019, including the estimated settlement of customary purchase price adjustments for working capital and assumed indebtedness, and recognition of tax and legal indemnifications in accordance with the GAC acquisition agreement. The Company’s assets and liabilities associated with GAC have been classified as held for sale and the respective operations have been classified as discontinued operations; and reported separately for all periods presented.  GAC consists of appearance products, including protectants, wipes, tire and wheel care products, glass cleaners, leather care products, air fresheners and washes designed to clean, shine, refresh and protect interior and exterior automobile surfaces under the Armor All® brand; performance products including STP® branded fuel and oil additives, functional fluids and automotive appearance products; A/C recharge products that consist of do-it-yourself automotive air conditioner recharge products under the A/C Pro® brand, along with other refrigerant and oil recharge kits, sealants and accessories. Refer to Note 3 – Divestitures to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for further discussion pertaining to the GAC divestiture. 
Other Information
Employees
We have approximately 12,100 full-time employees worldwide as of September 30, 2020 associated with our continuing operations. Approximately 34% of our total labor force is covered by collective bargaining agreements, which has increased for temporary workers to enhance the supply chain in response to increased consumer demand following the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe that our overall relationship with our employees is good.

ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

Any of the following factors could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The risks described below are not the only risks that we may face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently view as immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are subject to a variety of risks, including those described below. In particular, these risks include, but are not limited to:
Risks related to our business operations: We participate in very competitive markets and we may not be able to compete successfully, causing us to lose market share and sales.
Risks related to our indebtedness and financing abilities: Our substantial indebtedness may limit our financial and operating flexibility, and we may incur additional debt, which could increase the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness.
Risks related to our international operations: We are subject to significant international business risks that could hurt our business and cause our results of operations to fluctuate.
Risks related to Data Privacy and Intellectual Property: We may not be able to adequately establish and protect our intellectual property rights, and the infringement or loss of our intellectual property rights could harm our business.
Risks related to litigation and regulatory compliance: We are subject to a number of claims and litigation and may be subject to future claims and litigation, any of which may adversely affect our business.
Risks related to investment in our common stock: The market price of the Company’s common stock is likely to be highly volatile and could fluctuate widely in price in response to various factors, many of which are beyond our control.


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Risks Related to our Business Operations
The COVID-19 pandemic is a serious emerging threat to the health and economic well-being affecting our customers, employees, sources of supply and our financial condition and results of operations.

In March 2020, the World Health Organization announced that COVID-19 has become a pandemic and a National Emergency relating to COVID-19 was announced in the U.S.. There is a possibility of widespread infection in the U.S. and abroad, with the potential for substantial commercial impact. National, state, and local authorities have recommended social distancing and imposed, or are considering imposing, quarantine and isolation measures, on large portions of the population, including mandatory business closures. These measures are expected to have serious adverse impacts on domestic and foreign economies of uncertain severity and duration. The effectiveness of economic stabilization efforts, including potential government payments to affected citizens and industries, is uncertain.

The sweeping nature of COVID-19 makes it extremely difficult to predict the long-term ramifications on our financial condition and results of operations. However, the likely overall economic impact of COVID-19 is viewed as highly negative to the general economy. These impacts may include, but are not limited to:

significant reductions in, or volatility of, demand for our products, which may be caused by the inability or unwillingness of consumers to purchase our products due to illness, quarantine, travel restrictions, store closures, general financial hardship, decreased consumer confidence or changes in consumer spending and shopping habits;
inability to meet customers’ needs or achieve cost targets due to disruptions in our manufacturing and supply arrangements caused by the loss or disruption of essential manufacturing or availability or cost of key product components, transportation, workforce, or other manufacturing and distribution capability;
failure of third parties on which we rely, including our suppliers, contract manufacturers, distributors, contractors, commercial banks, and other business partners, to meet their obligations to us, or significant disruptions in their ability to do so, which may be caused by their own financial or operational difficulties and may adversely impact our operations;
significant change in the political conditions in markets in which we manufacture, sell or distribute our products, including governmental or regulatory actions such as quarantines, closures or other restrictions, that limit or close our operating and manufacturing facilities, restrict our employees’ ability to travel or perform necessary business functions, or otherwise prevent our third-party partners, suppliers, or customers from sufficiently staffing operations, including operations necessary for the production, distribution, sale and support of our products, which could adversely impact our results or impairment of the Company’s net assets;
disruptions and stress in capital markets that could impact the cost and availability of capital for us and for our customers, suppliers and other business partners;
quarantines, stay-at-home orders and other limitations can disrupt our product development, branding, research and administrative functions, regardless of whether we are actually forced to close our own facilities and similar disruptions that may also effect other organizations and persons that we collaborate with or whose services we are dependent on; or
the need for our employees and business partners to work remotely in these circumstances also creates greater potential for risks related to cybersecurity, confidentiality and data privacy.

As of the date of this report, we have been classified as an essential business in the jurisdictions that have mandated closure of non-essential businesses, and therefore have generally been allowed to remain open. However, we can give no assurance that this will not change in the future. Despite our efforts to manage and remedy the impact of COVID-19 on our financial condition and results of operations, the ultimate impact also depends on factors beyond our knowledge or control, including the duration and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities to contain its spread and mitigate its public health effects. Additionally, as the COVID-19 pandemic conditions wane, we cannot predict how quickly the marketplaces in which we operate will return to normal. Any of the foregoing factors, or other cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic that are not currently foreseeable, could materially increase our costs, negatively impact our sales and damage our results of operations and liquidity position. The duration of any such impacts cannot be predicted. See further discussion in Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

Reliance on third-party relationships and outsourcing arrangements could adversely affect our business.

We rely on third parties, including suppliers, distributors, alliances with other companies, and third-party service providers, for selected aspects of product development, manufacture, commercialization, support for information technology systems, product distribution, and certain financial transactional processes. Additionally, we have outsourced certain functions to third-party service providers to leverage leading specialized capabilities and achieve cost efficiencies. Outsourcing these functions involves the risk that third-party service providers may not perform to our standards or legal requirements, may not produce reliable results, may not perform in a timely manner, may not maintain the confidentiality of our proprietary information, or may fail to perform at all. Additionally, any disruption, such as a government shutdown, war, natural disaster or global pandemic (including the current COVID-19 pandemic), could affect the ability of our third-party service providers to meet their contractual obligations to us. Failure of these third parties to meet their contractual, regulatory, confidentiality or other obligations to us could result in material financial loss, higher costs, regulatory actions, and reputational harm.

Uncertain global economic conditions may adversely impact demand for our products or cause our customers and other business partners to suffer financial hardship, which could adversely impact our business.

Our business could be negatively impacted by reduced demand for our products related to one or more significant local, regional or global economic disruptions, the risk of which are aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, such as: a slow-down in the general economy; reduced market growth rates; tighter credit markets for our suppliers, vendors or customers; a significant shift in government policies; the deterioration of economic relations between countries or regions, including potential negative consumer sentiment toward non-local products or sources; or the inability to conduct day-to-day transactions through our financial intermediaries to pay funds to, or collect funds from, our customers, vendors and suppliers. Additionally, economic conditions may cause our suppliers, distributors, contractors or other third-party partners to suffer financial difficulties that they cannot overcome, resulting in their inability to provide us with the materials and services we need, in which case our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. Customers may also suffer financial hardships due to economic conditions such that their accounts become uncollectible or are subject to longer collection cycles. In addition, if we are unable to generate sufficient income and cash flow, it could affect the Company’s ability to achieve expected share repurchase and dividend payments.




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Disruption in our global supply chain may negatively impact our business results.

Our ability to meet our customers’ needs and achieve cost targets depends on our ability to maintain key manufacturing and supply arrangements, including execution of supply chain optimizations and certain sole supplier or sole manufacturing plant arrangements. The loss or disruption of such manufacturing and supply arrangements, including for issues such as labor disputes, loss or impairment of key manufacturing sites, discontinuity in our internal information and data systems, inability to procure sufficient raw or input materials, significant changes in trade policy, natural disasters, increasing severity or frequency of extreme weather events due to climate change or otherwise, acts of war or terrorism, the COVID-19 pandemic or other disease outbreaks or other external factors over which we have no control, have interrupted product supply and, if not effectively managed and remedied, could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We participate in very competitive markets and we may not be able to compete successfully, causing us to lose market share and sales.
We compete for consumer acceptance and limited shelf space based upon brand name recognition, perceived product quality, price, performance, product features and enhancements, product packaging and design innovation, as well as creative marketing, promotion and distribution strategies, and new product introductions. Additional discussion over the segments, product categories, and markets in which we compete are included under Item 1 above. Our ability to compete in these consumer product markets may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the following:
We compete against many well-established companies that may have substantially greater financial and other resources, including personnel and research and development, and greater overall market share than us.
In some key product lines, our competitors may have lower production costs and higher profit margins than us, which may enable them to compete more aggressively in offering retail discounts, rebates and other promotional incentives.
Technological advancements, product improvements or effective advertising campaigns by competitors may weaken consumer demand for our products.
Consumer purchasing behavior may shift to distribution channels, including to online retailers, where we and our customers do not have a strong presence.
Consumer preferences may change to lower margin products or products other than those we market.
We may not be successful in the introduction, marketing and manufacture of any new products or product innovations or be able to develop and introduce, in a timely manner, innovations to our existing products that satisfy customer needs or achieve market acceptance.
In addition, in a number of our product lines, we compete with our retail customers, who use their own private label brands, and with distributors and foreign manufacturers of unbranded products. Significant new competitors or increased competition from existing competitors, including specifically private label brands, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of our operations.
Some competitors may be willing to reduce prices and accept lower profit margins to compete with us. As a result of this competition, we could lose market share and sales, or be forced to reduce our prices to meet competition. If our product offerings are unable to compete successfully, our sales, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we may be unable to implement changes to our products or otherwise adapt to changing consumer trends. If we are unable to respond to changing consumer trends, our operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Changes in consumer shopping trends and changes in distribution channels could significantly harm our business
We sell our products through a variety of trade channels with a significant portion dependent upon retail partnerships, through both traditional brick-and-mortar retail channels and e-commerce channels. We are seeing the emergence of strong e-commerce channels generating more online competition and declining in-store traffic in brick-and-mortar retailers. Consumer shopping preferences have shifted and may continue to shift in the future to distribution channels other than traditional retail that may have more limited experience, presence and developed, such as e-commerce channels. If we are not successful in developing and utilizing e-commerce channels that future consumers may prefer, we may experience lower than expected revenues.
We are also seeing more traditional brick-and-mortar retailers closing physical stores, and filing for bankruptcy, which could negatively impact our distribution strategies and/or sales if such retailers decide to significantly reduce their inventory levels for our products or to designate more floor space to our competitors. Further consolidation, store closures and bankruptcies could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, as well as the trading price of our securities.
Consolidation of retailers and our dependence on a small number of key customers for a significant percentage of our sales may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a result of consolidation of retailers that has occurred during the past several years, particularly in the United States and the EU, and consumer trends toward national mass merchandisers, a significant percentage of our sales are attributable to a limited group of customers. As these mass merchandisers and retailers grow larger and become more sophisticated, they may demand lower pricing, special packaging or impose other requirements on product suppliers. These business demands may relate to inventory practices, logistics or other aspects of the customer-supplier relationship. Because of the importance of these key customers, demands for price reductions or promotions, reductions in their purchases, changes in their financial condition or loss of their accounts could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our success is dependent on our ability to manage our retailer relationships, including offering mutually acceptable trade terms.
Although we have long-established relationships with many of our customers, we generally do not have long-term agreements with them and purchases are normally made through the use of individual purchase orders. Any significant reduction in purchases, failure to obtain anticipated orders or delays or cancellations of orders by any of these major customers, or significant pressure to reduce prices from any of these major customers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, a significant deterioration in the financial condition of the retail industry in general, the bankruptcy of any of our customers or any of our customers ceasing operations could have a material adverse effect on our sales and profitability.
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As a result of retailers maintaining tighter inventory control, we face risks related to meeting demand and storing inventory.
As a result of the desire of retailers to more closely manage inventory levels, there is a growing trend among them to purchase products on a “just-in-time” basis. Due to a number of factors, including (i) manufacturing lead-times, (ii) seasonal purchasing patterns, and (iii) the potential for material price increases, we may be required to shorten our lead-time for production and more closely anticipate our retailers’ and customers’ demands, which could in the future require us to carry additional inventories and increase our working capital and related financing requirements. This may increase the cost of warehousing inventory or result in excess inventory becoming difficult to manage, unusable or obsolete. In addition, if our retailers significantly change their inventory management strategies, we may encounter difficulties in filling customer orders or in liquidating excess inventories or may find that customers are cancelling orders or returning products, which may have a material adverse effect on our business.
Furthermore, we primarily sell branded products and a move by one or more of our large customers to sell significant quantities of private label products, which we do not produce on their behalf and which directly compete with our products, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Sales of certain of our products are seasonal and may cause our operating results and working capital requirements to fluctuate.
On a consolidated basis our financial results are approximately equally weighted across our quarters, however, sales of certain product categories tend to be seasonal. Further discussion over the seasonality of our sales is included under the caption Seasonality under Item 1 above. As a result of this seasonality, our inventory and working capital needs fluctuate significantly throughout the year. In addition, orders from retailers are often made late in the period preceding the applicable peak season, making forecasting of production schedules and inventory purchases difficult. If we are unable to accurately forecast and prepare for customer orders or our working capital needs, or there is a general downturn in business or economic conditions during these periods, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Adverse weather conditions during our peak selling seasons for our home and garden products could have a material adverse effect on our home and garden business.
Weather conditions have a significant impact on the timing and volume of sales of certain of our lawn and garden and household insecticide and repellent products. For example, periods of dry, hot weather can decrease insecticide sales, while periods of cold and wet weather can slow sales of herbicides. Adverse weather conditions during the first six months of the calendar year (the Company’s second and third fiscal quarters), when demand for home and garden control products typically peaks, could have a material adverse effect on our home and garden business and our financial results during such period.
Our products utilize certain key raw materials; any significant increase in the price of, or change in supply and demand for, these raw materials could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and profits.
The principal raw materials used to produce our products—including brass, petroleum-based plastic materials, steel, aluminum, copper and corrugated materials (for packaging)—are sourced either on a global or regional basis by us or our suppliers, and the prices of those raw materials are susceptible to price fluctuations due to supply and demand trends, energy costs, transportation costs, government regulations, duties and tariffs, changes in currency exchange rates, price controls, general economic conditions and other unforeseen circumstances. Although we may seek to increase the prices of certain of our goods to our customers, we may not be able to pass all of these cost increases on to our customers. As a result, our margins may be adversely impacted by such cost increases. We cannot provide any assurance that our sources of supply will not be interrupted due to changes in worldwide supply of or demand for raw materials or other events that interrupt material flow, which may have an adverse effect on our profitability and results of operations.
We regularly engage in forward purchase and hedging derivative transactions in an attempt to effectively manage and stabilize some of the raw material costs we expect to incur over the next 12 to 24 months. However, our hedging positions may not be effective, or may not anticipate beneficial trends, in a particular raw material market or may, as a result of changes in our business, no longer be useful for us. See Note 14 – Derivatives in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for further discussion over our effective hedging strategies over certain commodity costs. In addition, for certain of the principal raw materials we use to produce our products there are no available effective hedging markets. If these efforts are not effective or expose us to above average costs for an extended period of time, and we are unable to pass our raw materials costs on to our customers, our future profitability may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, with respect to transportation costs, certain modes of delivery are subject to fuel surcharges which are determined based upon the current cost of diesel fuel in relation to pre-established agreed upon costs. We may be unable to pass these fuel surcharges on to our customers, which may have an adverse effect on our profitability and results of operations.
In addition, we have exclusivity arrangements and minimum purchase requirements with certain of our suppliers for the home and garden business, which increase our dependence upon and exposure to those suppliers. Some of those agreements include caps on the price we pay for our supplies and in certain instances these caps have allowed us to purchase materials at below market prices. When we attempt to renew those contracts, the other parties to the contracts may not be willing to include or may limit the effect of those caps and could even attempt to impose above market prices in an effort to make up for any below market prices paid by us prior to the renewal of the agreement. Any failure to timely obtain suitable supplies at competitive prices could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our dependence on a few suppliers for certain of our products makes us vulnerable to a disruption in the supply of our products.
Although we have long-standing relationships with many of our suppliers, we generally do not have long-term contracts with them. An adverse change in any of the following could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations:
our ability to identify and develop relationships with qualified suppliers;
the terms and conditions upon which we purchase products from our suppliers, including applicable exchange rates, transport and other costs, our suppliers’ willingness to extend credit to us to finance our inventory purchases and other factors beyond our control;
the financial condition of our suppliers;
political and economic instability in the countries in which our suppliers are located, as a result of war, terrorist attacks, pandemics, natural disasters or otherwise;
our ability to import outsourced products;
our suppliers’ noncompliance with applicable laws, trade restrictions and tariffs; or
our suppliers’ ability to manufacture and deliver outsourced products according to our standards of quality on a timely and efficient basis.
If our relationship with one of our key suppliers is adversely affected, we may not be able to quickly or effectively replace such supplier and may not be able to retrieve tooling, molds or other specialized production equipment or processes used by such supplier in the manufacture of our products. The loss of one or more of our suppliers, a material reduction in their supply of products or provision of services to us or extended disruptions or interruptions in their operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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In addition, we manufacture the majority of our residential door locks at our Subic Bay, Philippines facility. Our home and garden products are mainly manufactured from our St. Louis, MO, facility. We are dependent upon the continued safe operation of these facilities.
Our facilities are subject to various hazards associated with the manufacturing, handling, storage, and transportation of chemical materials and products, including human error, leaks and ruptures, explosions, floods, fires, inclement weather and natural disasters, power loss or other infrastructure failures, mechanical failure, unscheduled downtime, regulatory requirements, the loss of certifications, technical difficulties, labor disputes, inability to obtain material, equipment or transportation, environmental hazards such as remediation, chemical spills, discharges or releases of toxic or hazardous substances or gases, and other risks. Many of these hazards could cause personal injury and loss of life, severe damage to, or destruction of, property and equipment and environmental contamination. In addition, the occurrence of material operation problems at our facilities due to any of these hazards could cause a disruption in the production of products. We may also encounter difficulties or interruption as a result of the application of enhanced manufacturing technologies or changes to production lines to improve throughput or to upgrade or repair its production lines. The Company’s insurance policies have coverage in case of significant damage to its manufacturing facilities but may not fully compensate for the cost of replacement for any such damage and any loss from business interruption. As a result, we may not be adequately insured to cover losses resulting from significant damage to its manufacturing facility. Any damage to its facility or interruption in manufacturing could result in production delays and delays in meeting contractual obligations which could have a material adverse effect on relationships with customers and on its results of operations, financial condition or cash flows in any given period.
We face risks related to our sales of products obtained from third-party suppliers.
We sell a significant number of products that are manufactured by third-party suppliers over which we have no direct control. While we have implemented processes and procedures to try to ensure that the suppliers we use are complying with all applicable regulations, there can be no assurances that such suppliers in all instances will comply with such processes and procedures or otherwise with applicable regulations. Noncompliance could result in our marketing and distribution of contaminated, defective or dangerous products which could subject us to liabilities and could result in the imposition by governmental authorities of procedures or penalties that could restrict or eliminate our ability to purchase products. Any or all of these effects could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Additionally, the impact of economic conditions of our suppliers cannot be predicted and our suppliers may be unable to access financing or become insolvent and thus become unable to supply us with products. Development in tax policy, such as the disallowance of tax deductions for imported goods, or the imposition of tariffs on imported goods, could further have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and liquidity.
In addition, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act includes provisions regarding certain minerals and metals, known as conflict minerals, mined from the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries. These provisions require companies to undertake due diligence procedures and report on the use of conflict minerals in its products, including products manufactured by third parties. Compliance with these provisions causes us to incur costs to certify that our supply chain is conflict free and we may face difficulties if our suppliers are unwilling or unable to verify the source of their materials. Our ability to source these minerals and metals may also be adversely impacted. In addition, our customers may require that we provide them with a certification and our inability to do so may disqualify us as a supplier.
If we are unable to negotiate satisfactory terms to continue existing or enter into additional collective bargaining agreements, we may experience an increased risk of labor disruptions and our results of operations and financial condition may suffer.
While we currently expect to negotiate continuations to the terms of these agreements, there can be no assurances that we will be able to obtain terms that are satisfactory to us or otherwise to reach agreement at all with the applicable parties. In addition, in the course of our business, we may also become subject to additional collective bargaining agreements. These agreements may be on terms that are less favorable than those under our current collective bargaining agreements. Increased exposure to collective bargaining agreements, whether on terms more or less favorable than our existing collective bargaining agreements, could adversely affect the operation of our business, including through increased labor expenses. While we intend to comply with all collective bargaining agreements to which we are subject, there can be no assurances that we will be able to do so and any noncompliance could subject us to disruptions in our operations and materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. For additional information see the discussion over the Company’s labor force subject to collective bargaining agreements under the caption Employees in Item 1 above.
Significant changes in actual investment return on pension assets, discount rates, and other factors could affect our results of operations, equity and pension contributions in future periods.
Our results of operations may be positively or negatively affected by the amount of income or expense we record for our defined benefit pension plans. Accounting Principles Generally Accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) requires that we calculate income or expense for the plans using actuarial valuations. These valuations reflect assumptions about financial markets and other economic conditions, which may change based on changes in key economic indicators. The most significant assumptions we use to estimate pension income or expense are the discount rate and the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets. In addition, we are required to make an annual measurement of plan assets and liabilities, which may result in a significant change to equity. Although pension expense and pension funding contributions are not directly related, key economic factors that affect pension expense would also likely affect the amount of cash we would contribute to pension plans as required under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended.
Our business may be materially affected by changes to fiscal and tax policies that could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.
We operate globally and changes in tax laws could adversely affect our results. On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Reform Act”) was signed into law. The legislation, which became effective on January 1, 2018, significantly changed U.S. tax law by, among other things, lowering corporate income tax rates, implementing a dividends received deduction for dividends from foreign subsidiaries, imposing a repatriation tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries, a minimum tax on foreign earnings, limitations on deduction of business interest expense and limits on deducting compensation to certain executive officers. Additional tax regulations and interpretations of the Tax Reform Act have been, and continue to be, issued, some with retroactive application dates and some which materially impacted the Company. The Company understands that other U.S. taxpayers have or plan to challenge the constitutionality of a set of regulations that had a material impact on the Company. If the regulations were ruled unconstitutional, the Company could be favorably impacted. New or revised interpretations of the Tax Reform Act and state conformity with its provisions could have a material impact on the valuation allowance recorded on U.S. state net operating losses. Certain of these changes could have a negative or adverse impact on the operating results and cash flows of the Company. See Note 16 – Income Taxes in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for further discussion on the impact from the Tax Reform Act.

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We may not be able to fully utilize our U.S. tax attributes.
The Company has accumulated a substantial amount of U.S. federal and state net operating loss (“NOLs”) carryforwards, and federal and state tax credits that will expire if unused. We have concluded that it is more likely than not that the majority of the federal and state deferred tax assets will create tax benefits in the future. As a consequence of earlier business combinations and issuances of common stock, the Company and its subsidiaries have had various changes of ownership that continue to subject a significant amount of the Company’s U.S. NOLs and other tax attributes to certain limitations; and therefore a valuation allowance is still recognized on certain federal and state tax asset carryforwards that are expected to expire due to the ownership change limitations or because we do not believe we will earn enough taxable income to utilize. Changes to state conformity to the provisions of the Tax Reform Act could have a material impact on the valuation allowance recorded on U.S. state net operating losses. If we are unable to fully utilize our NOLs to offset taxable income generated in the future, our future cash taxes could be materially and negatively impacted. For further discussion on the Company’s federal and state NOLs, credits, and applicable valuation allowance as of September 30, 2020, see Note 16 – Income Taxes in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Our acquisition and expansion strategy may not be successful and may divert our management’s attention away from operations and could create general customer uncertainty.
Our growth strategy is based in part on growth through acquisitions, which poses a number of risks. We may not be successful in identifying appropriate acquisition candidates, consummating acquisitions on satisfactory terms or integrating any newly acquired or expanded business with our current operations. We may issue additional equity, incur long-term or short-term indebtedness, spend cash or use a combination of these for all or part of the consideration paid in future acquisitions or expansion of our operations. The execution of our acquisition and expansion strategy could entail repositioning or similar actions that in turn require us to record impairments, restructuring and other charges. Any such charges would reduce our earnings. We cannot guarantee that any future business acquisitions will be pursued or that any acquisitions that are pursued will be consummated.
Additionally, successful integration of acquired businesses’ operations, products and personnel with us may place a significant burden on our management and other internal resources. The diversion of management’s attention, and any difficulties encountered in the transition and integration process, could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results. Moreover, our customers may, in response to the announcement or consummation of a business acquisition, delay or defer purchasing decisions. If our customers delay or defer purchasing decisions, our revenues could materially decline or any anticipated increases in revenue could be lower than expected.
Significant costs have been incurred and are expected to be incurred in connection with the consummation of recent and future business acquisitions and the integration of such acquired businesses with the Company into a combined company, including legal, accounting, financial advisory and other costs.
We expect to incur one-time costs in connection with integrating our operations, products and personnel and those of businesses we acquire into a combined company, in addition to costs related directly to completing such acquisitions. We would expect similar costs to be incurred with any future acquisition. These costs may include expenditures for:
employee redeployment, relocation or severance;
integration of operations and information systems;
combination of research and development teams and processes; and
reorganization or closures of facilities.
In addition, we expect to incur a number of non-recurring costs associated with combining our operations with those of acquired businesses. Additional unanticipated costs may yet be incurred as we integrate our business with acquired businesses. Although we expect that the elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of our operations with those of acquired businesses, may offset incremental transaction and transaction-related costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term. Additionally, while we expect to benefit from leveraging distribution channels and brand names among the Company and the businesses we acquire, we cannot assure you that we will achieve such benefits.
We may not realize the anticipated benefits of, and synergies from, our business acquisitions and may become responsible for certain liabilities and integration costs as a result.
Business acquisitions involve the integration of new businesses that have previously operated independently from us. The integration of our operations with those of acquired businesses is frequently expected to result in financial and operational benefits, including increased top line growth, margins, revenues and cost savings and be accretive to earnings per share, earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization and free cash flow before synergies. There can be no assurance, however, regarding when or the extent to which we will be able to realize increased top line growth, margins, revenues, cost savings or accretions to earnings per share, earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization or free cash flow or other benefits. Integration may also be difficult, unpredictable, and subject to delay because of possible company culture conflicts and different opinions on technical decisions and product roadmaps. We will often be required to integrate or, in some cases, replace, numerous systems, including those involving management information, purchasing, accounting and finance, sales, billing, employee benefits, payroll and regulatory compliance, many of which may be dissimilar. In some instances, we and certain acquired businesses have served the same customers, and some customers may decide that it is desirable to have additional or different suppliers. Difficulties associated with the integration of acquired businesses could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We may also acquire partial or full ownership in businesses or may acquire rights to market and distribute particular products or lines of products. The acquisition of a business or the rights to market specific products or use specific product names may involve a financial commitment by us, either in the form of cash or equity consideration. In the case of a new license, such commitments are usually in the form of prepaid royalties and future minimum royalty payments. There is no guarantee that we will acquire businesses or product distribution rights that will contribute positively to our earnings. Anticipated synergies may not materialize, cost savings may be less than expected, sales of products may not meet expectations and acquired businesses may carry unexpected liabilities.
In addition, in connection with business acquisitions, we have assumed, and may assume in connection with future acquisitions, certain potential liabilities. To the extent such liabilities are not identified by us or to the extent the indemnifications obtained from third parties are insufficient to cover such liabilities, these liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business.

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We may not be able to retain key personnel or recruit additional qualified personnel, which could materially affect our business and require us to incur substantial additional costs to recruit replacement personnel.
We are highly dependent on the continuing efforts of our senior management team and other key personnel. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected if we lose any of these persons and are unable to attract and retain qualified replacements. Additionally, the agreements that we sign as a result of business acquisitions could affect our current and prospective employees due to uncertainty about their future roles. This uncertainty may adversely affect our ability to attract and retain key management, sales, marketing and technical personnel. Any failure to attract and retain key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business. If any of our key personnel or those of our acquired businesses were to join a competitor or form a competing company, existing and potential customers or suppliers could choose to form business relationships with that competitor instead of us. There can be no assurance that confidentiality, non-solicitation, non-competition or similar agreements signed by former directors, officers, employees or stockholders of us, our acquired businesses or our transactional counterparties will be effective in preventing a loss of business. In addition, we currently do not maintain “key person” insurance covering any member of our management team.
The Agreements that we signed, and the related actions we have taken, in connection with the sale of the GBL and GAC businesses continue to impose significant obligations and risks on us and our business.
On January 2, 2019, and January 28, 2019, we completed the sales of our GBL and GAC businesses, respectively, to Energizer (collectively, the “Energizer Dispositions”). As partial consideration for the GAC disposition we received 5,278,921 shares of Energizer’s common stock. For purposes of our financial reporting our investment in Energizer is recognized at fair value based upon the market price of Energizer’s common stock as of the applicable reporting date. Any change in the fair value of our holdings in Energizer’s common stock is recognized as non-cash unrealized gain or loss within the Company’s Consolidated Statement of Income as non-operating income or expense which contributes to our income from continuing operations before income taxes. Accordingly, any such gain or loss on the value of Energizer’s common stock may have a material effect on our financial results, including our quarterly or annual results.
In connection with the closing of the sale of the GAC business we entered into a shareholder agreement with Energizer (the “Energizer Shareholder Agreement”) which contains a 24-month standstill provision that imposes restrictions on the Company from engaging in certain transactions to control or influence Energizer’s management, board of directors or policies. Consequently, we have limited ability to impact the policies and practices of Energizer. For instance, while Energizer has historically paid a quarterly dividend, which is recognized as a cash component of non-operating income on our Consolidated Statement of Income, we do not have the ability to cause Energizer to pay or increase or decrease the dividend or make any other payments or advances to its stockholders, including us. Moreover, although we have certain registration rights related to our shares of Energizer common stock pursuant to the Energizer Shareholder Agreement, there can be no assurance that we will be able to dispose of such stock at a favorable price, or at all.
Finally, pursuant to the terms of the Energizer Dispositions, we entered into customary transition service agreements with Energizer (collectively, the “TSAs”) pursuant to which we provide services to Energizer and receive services from both Energizer and the Varta®. Compliance with the terms of the TSAs can be costly and time consuming and could divert our management’s attention away from the Company’s business and operations. Any failure to comply with the terms of the TSAs could result in us incurring substantial costs or liabilities. Additionally, pursuant to the terms of the TSAs we are reliant on Energizer and Varta® for certain services. If Energizer or Varta® fail to comply with the terms of the TSAs, our ability to conduct our business and operations could be materially negatively impacted. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Increased focus by governmental and non-governmental organizations, customers, consumers and investors on sustainability issues, including those related to climate change, may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and damage our reputation.
As climate change, land use, water use, deforestation, plastic waste, recyclability or recoverability of packaging, including single-use and other plastic packaging, and other sustainability concerns become more prevalent, governmental and non-governmental organizations, customers, consumers and investors are increasingly focusing on these issues. In particular, changing consumer preferences may result in increased customer and consumer concerns and demands regarding plastics and packaging materials, including single-use and non-recyclable plastic packaging, and their environmental impact on sustainability, a growing demand for natural or organic products and ingredients, or increased consumer concerns or perceptions (whether accurate or inaccurate) regarding the effects of ingredients or substances present in certain consumer products. This increased focus on environmental issues and sustainability may result in new or increased regulations and customer, consumer and investor demands that could cause us to incur additional costs or to make changes to our operations to comply with any such regulations and address demands. If we are unable to respond or perceived to be inadequately responding to sustainability concerns, customers and consumers may choose to purchase products from another company or a competitor. Concern over climate change may result in new or increased legal and regulatory requirements to reduce or mitigate the effects of climate change on the environment. Increased costs of energy or compliance with emissions standards due to increased legal or regulatory requirements may cause disruptions in or increased costs associated with manufacturing our products. Any failure to achieve our goals with respect to reducing our impact on the environment or a perception (whether or not valid) of our failure to act responsibly with respect to the environment or to effectively respond to new, or changes in, legal or regulatory requirements concerning climate change or other sustainability concerns could adversely affect our business and reputation.
Our business could be negatively impacted by corporate citizenship and sustainability matters and/or our reporting of such matters.
There is an increasing focus from certain investors, customers, consumers, employees, and other stakeholders concerning corporate citizenship and sustainability matters. From time to time, we communicate certain initiatives, including goals, regarding environmental matters, responsible sourcing and social investments. We could fail, or be perceived to fail, in our achievement of such initiatives or goals, or we could fail in fully and accurately reporting our progress on such initiatives and goals. In addition, we could be criticized for the scope of such initiatives or goals or perceived as not acting responsibly in connection with these matters. Our business could be negatively impacted by such matters. Any such matters, or related corporate citizenship and sustainability matters, could have a material adverse effect on our business.


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Risks Related to our Indebtedness and Financing Activities
Our substantial indebtedness may limit our financial and operating flexibility, and we may incur additional debt, which could increase the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness.
We have, and we expect to continue to have, a significant amount of indebtedness. See Note 12 - Debt in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for additional detail. Our substantial indebtedness has had, and could continue to have, material adverse consequences for our business, and may:
require us to dedicate a large portion of our cash flow to pay principal and interest on our indebtedness, which will reduce the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, research and development expenditures and other business activities;
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
restrict our ability to make strategic acquisitions, dispositions or to exploit business opportunities;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt; and
limit our ability to borrow additional funds (even when necessary to maintain adequate liquidity) or dispose of assets.
Under our senior credit agreement governing our secured facilities and the indentures governing our senior notes (together, our “debt agreements”), we may incur additional indebtedness. If new debt is added to our existing debt levels, the related risks that we now face would increase.
Furthermore, a portion of our debt bears interest at variable rates. Increases in market interest rates may raise the interest rate on our variable rate debt and create higher debt service requirements, which would adversely affect our cash flow and could adversely impact our results of operations. While we may enter into agreements limiting our exposure to higher debt service requirements, any such agreements may not offer complete protection from this risk. Upon completion of a divestiture, we may be required to pay down debt using proceeds from the sale.
Restrictive covenants in our debt agreements may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies.
Our debt agreements each restrict, among other things, asset dispositions, mergers and acquisitions, dividends, stock repurchases and redemptions, other restricted payments, indebtedness and preferred stock, loans and investments, liens and affiliate transactions. Our debt agreements also contain customary events of default and covenants imposing operating and financial restrictions on our business. These covenants could, among other things, restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, liens or engage in sale and leaseback transactions, pay dividends or make distribution in respect of capital stock, make certain restricted payments, sell assets, engage in transactions with affiliates, except on an arms-length basis, or consolidate or merge with or sell substantially all of our assets. Further, these covenants could, among other things, limit our ability to fund future working capital and capital expenditures, engage in future acquisitions or development activities, or otherwise realize the value of our assets and opportunities fully. In addition, our debt agreements require us to dedicate a portion of cash flow from operations to payments on debt and also contain borrowing restrictions based on, among other things, our fixed charge coverage ratio. Furthermore, the credit agreement governing our senior secured facilities contains a financial covenant relating to maximum leverage. Such requirements and covenants could limit the flexibility of our restricted entities in planning for, or reacting to, changes in the industries in which they operate. Our ability to comply with these covenants is subject to certain events outside our control. If we are unable to comply with these covenants, the lenders under our senior secured facilities could terminate their commitments and the lenders under our senior secured facilities or the holders of our senior notes could accelerate repayment of our outstanding borrowings and, in either case, we may be unable to obtain adequate refinancing of outstanding borrowings on favorable terms or at all. If we are unable to repay outstanding borrowings when due, the lenders under the senior secured facilities will also have the right to proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure the indebtedness owed to them. If our obligations under the senior secured facilities are accelerated, we cannot assure you that our assets would be sufficient to repay in full such indebtedness.
Future financing activities may adversely affect our leverage and financial condition.
Subject to the limitations set forth in our debt agreements, we may incur additional indebtedness and issue dividend-bearing redeemable equity interests. We may incur substantial additional financial obligations to enable us to execute our business objectives. These obligations could result in:
default and foreclosure on our assets if our operating revenues after an investment or acquisition are insufficient to repay our financial obligations;
acceleration of our obligations to repay the financial obligations even if we make all required payments when due if we breach certain covenants that require the maintenance of certain financial ratios or reserves without a waiver or renegotiation of that covenant;
our immediate payments of all amounts owed, if any, if such financial obligations are payable on demand;
our inability to obtain additional financing if such financial obligations contain covenants restricting our ability to obtain such financing while the financial obligations remain outstanding;
our inability to pay dividends on our capital stock;
using a substantial portion of our cash flow to pay principal and interest or dividends on our financial obligations, which will reduce the funds available for dividends on our Common Stock if declared, expenses, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;
limitations on our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in our business and in the industries in which we operate;
an event of default that triggers a cross default with respect to other financial obligations, including our indebtedness;
increased vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other conditions and adverse changes in government regulation; and
limitations on our ability to borrow additional amounts for expenses, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, execution of our strategy and other purposes and other disadvantages compared to our competitors.


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Risks Related to our International Operations
We are subject to significant international business risks that could hurt our business and cause our results of operations to fluctuate.
A significant portion of our net sales are to customers outside of the U.S. See Note 21 – Segment Information in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in the Annual Report, for sales by geographic region. Our pursuit of international growth opportunities may require significant investments for an extended period before returns on these investments, if any, are realized. Our international operations are subject to risks including, among others:
currency fluctuations, including, without limitation, fluctuations in the foreign exchange rate of the Euro, British Pound, Canadian Dollar, Australian Dollar, Japanese Yen, Chinese Renminbi, and the Mexican Peso;
changes in the economic conditions or consumer preferences or demand for our products in these markets;
the risk that because our brand names may not be locally recognized, we must spend significant amounts of time and money to build brand recognition without certainty that we will be successful;
labor unrest;
political and economic instability, as a result of war, terrorist attacks, pandemics, natural disasters or otherwise;
lack of developed infrastructure;
longer payment cycles and greater difficulty in collecting accounts;
restrictions on transfers of funds;
import and export duties and quotas, as well as general transportation costs;
changes in domestic and international customs and tariffs;
changes in foreign labor laws and regulations affecting our ability to hire and retain employees;
inadequate protection of intellectual property in foreign countries;
unexpected changes in regulatory environments;
difficulty in complying with foreign law; and
adverse tax consequences.
The foregoing factors may have a material adverse effect on our ability to increase or maintain our supply of products, financial condition or results of operations.
As a result of our international operations, we face a number of risks related to exchange rates and foreign currencies.
Our international sales and certain of our expenses are transacted in foreign currencies. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, approximately 30% of our net sales and operating expenses were denominated in foreign currencies. We expect that the amount of our revenues and expenses transacted in foreign currencies will increase as our Latin American, European and Asian operations grow and as a result of acquisitions in these markets and, as a result, our exposure to risks associated with foreign currencies could increase accordingly. Significant changes in the value of the U.S. dollar in relation to foreign currencies will affect our cost of goods sold and our operating margins and could result in exchange losses or otherwise have a material effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Changes in currency exchange rates may also affect our sales to, purchases from, and loans to, our subsidiaries, as well as sales to, purchases from, and bank lines of credit with, our customers, suppliers and creditors that are denominated in foreign currencies.
We source many products from China and other Asian countries. To the extent the Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”) or other currencies depreciate or appreciate with respect to the U.S. dollar, we may experience fluctuations in our results of operations. The RMB is not pegged to the U.S. dollar at a constant exchange rate and instead fluctuates versus a basket of currencies. Although the People’s Bank of China has historically intervened in the foreign exchange market to prevent significant short-term fluctuations in the exchange rate, the RMB may appreciate or depreciate within a flexible peg range against the U.S. dollar in the medium to long term. Moreover, it is possible that in the future Chinese authorities may lift restrictions on fluctuations in the RMB exchange rate and lessen intervention in the foreign exchange market.
While we may enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these transactions may be limited, and we may not be able to successfully hedge our exposure to currency fluctuations. Further, we may not be successful in implementing customer pricing or other actions in an effort to mitigate the impact of currency fluctuations and, thus, our results of operations may be adversely impacted.
Our international operations expose us to risks related to compliance with the laws and regulations of foreign countries.
Electronic and electrical products that depend on electric current to operate (“EEE”) that we sell in Europe are subject to regulation in European Union (“EU”) markets under two key EU directives. Among our brands, this includes a limited range of products, such as aquarium pumps, heaters, and lighting. We are subject to two EU Directives that may have a material impact on our business: Restriction of the Use of Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“RUHSEEE”) and Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“WEEE”). RUHSEEE requires us to eliminate specified hazardous materials from products we sell in EU member states. WEEE requires us to collect and treat, dispose of or recycle certain products we manufacture or import into the EU at our own expense. The costs associated with maintaining compliance or failing to comply with the EU Directives may harm our business. For example:
Although contracts with our suppliers address related compliance issues, we may be unable to procure appropriate RUHSEEE-compliant material in sufficient quantity and quality and/or be able to incorporate it into our product procurement processes without compromising quality and/or harming our cost structure.
We may face excess and/or obsolete inventory risk related to non-compliant inventory that we may hold for which there is reduced demand, and we may need to write down the carrying value of such inventories.
We believe that compliance with RUHSEEE does not have a material effect on our capital expenditures, financial condition, earnings or competitive position. To comply with WEEE requirements, we have partnered with other companies to create a comprehensive collection, treatment, disposal and recycling program as specified within the member countries we conduct business. As EU member states pass enabling legislation we currently expect our compliance system to be sufficient to meet such requirements. Our current estimated costs associated with compliance with WEEE are not significant based on our current market share. However, we continue to evaluate the impact of the WEEE legislation and implementing regulations as EU member states implement guidance and as our market share changes and, as a result, actual costs to our company could differ from our current estimates and may be material to our business, financial condition or results of operations.

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Many of the developing countries in which we operate do not have significant governmental regulation relating to environmental safety, occupational safety, employment practices or other business matters routinely regulated in the U.S. and EU or may not rigorously enforce such regulation. As these countries and their economies develop, it is possible that new regulations or increased enforcement of existing regulations may increase the expense of doing business in these countries. In addition, social legislation in many countries in which we operate may result in significantly higher expenses associated with labor costs, terminating employees or distributors and closing manufacturing facilities. Increases in our costs as a result of increased regulation, legislation or enforcement could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We face risks related to the impact on foreign trade agreements and relations from the current administration.
Recent changes in the United States federal government have caused uncertainty about the future of trade partnerships and treaties, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (“NAFTA”) and the World Trade Organization. The current administration has formally withdrawn the United States from the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (“TPPA”), which may affect the Company’s ability to leverage lower cost facilities in territories outside of the U.S. President Trump has also threatened to withdraw the United States from the World Trade Organization, which, if it occurred, could affect tariff rates and other trade terms between the U.S. and its trading partners as well as possibly have material consequences for the global trading system. The current administration has also initiated negotiations with Canada and Mexico aimed at re-negotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement (“NAFTA”). On November 30, 2018 the U.S., Mexico, and Canada signed a replacement trade deal for NAFTA known as the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (“USMCA”), which was subsequently ratified by each government.. The USMCA maintains duty-free access for most products and leaves most key provisions of the NAFTA agreement largely intact. The U.S. Administration’s assertive trade policies could result in further conflicts with U.S. trading partners, affecting the Company’s supply chains, sourcing, and markets. Foreign countries may impose additional burdens on U.S. companies through the use of local regulations, tariffs or other requirements which could increase our operating costs in those foreign jurisdictions. It remains unclear what additional actions, if any, the current administration will take. If the United States were to materially modify or replace NAFTA or other international trade agreements to which it is a party, or if tariffs were raised on the foreign-sourced goods that we sell, such goods may no longer be available at a commercially attractive price, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face risks relating to tariffs imposed by the United States and other governments.
The United States government has implemented tariffs on certain products imported into the United States, which has resulted in reciprocal tariffs from the European Union on goods imported from the United States. In addition, for a number of countries, including European countries and China, the United States government has placed a series of tariffs on imported goods. In response a number of countries, including several in Europe as well as China, have imposed tariffs on a wide range of American products. Additional tariffs could be imposed by the United States or on the United States’ response to actions taken by the United States government. These governmental actions could have, and any similar future action may have, a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and result of operations. For instance, a large percentage of our products that we sell in the United States are manufactured or sourced in China. While it is too early to predict the full extent of the impact of these actions on our business, the imposition of tariffs on products imported by us from China have in some cases required us to increase prices to our customers or and/or resulted in lowering our gross margin on products sold.
We face risks relating to the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union.
Following the 2016 referendum in the United Kingdom (“UK”) on whether the UK should remain in, or leave, the European Union (“EU”), the UK left the EU on January 1, 2020, but remains, during a transition period that ends on December 31, 2020, in the EU single market and customs union. While negotiations between the UK and the EU currently are ongoing, it remains unclear whether by December 31, 2020 there will be a free trade agreement between the UK and the EU (which may only cover a limited number of key areas) or whether the UK will leave without a deal. As a result, there is significant uncertainty on a range of issues from the value of the pound, the impact on financial markets, to the impact on trade in goods and services between the UK and the EU. There is also significant uncertainty as to whether, and to what extent, laws, regulations, data privacy rules, and product and other standards in the UK will remain aligned with the EU or will diverge. There could be increased costs from re-imposition of tariffs on trade between the UK and EU, shipping delays due to the need for customs inspections and procedures, temporary shortages of certain goods or materials and other adverse impacts on supply chains. There could also be changes in tax rules that could affect us. Macro-economic trends could also be adversely affected. Increased costs for goods and services, as well as other effects of dislocations caused by the UK withdrawal, could adversely affect consumer confidence and business sentiment. Any of the foregoing could affect us, but due to the level of uncertainty, we are unable to predict the potential impact of any UK withdrawal scenario on our business, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity or cash flows, which could be material.
We are subject to risks associated with importing goods and materials from foreign countries.
A portion of goods and materials may be sourced by vendors and by us outside of the United States. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to facilitate compliance with laws and regulations relating to doing business in foreign markets and importing merchandise from abroad, there can be no assurance that suppliers and other third parties with whom we do business will not violate such laws and regulations or our policies, which could subject us to liability and could adversely affect our results of operations.
We are subject to the various risks of importing merchandise from abroad and purchasing product made in foreign countries, such as:
potential disruptions in manufacturing, logistics and supply;
changes in duties, tariffs, quotas and voluntary export restrictions on imported goods;
strikes and other events affecting delivery;
product compliance with laws and regulations of the destination country;
product liability claims from customers or penalties from government agencies relating to products that are recalled, defective or otherwise noncompliance or alleged to be harmful;
concerns about human rights, working conditions and other labor rights and conditions and environmental impact in foreign countries where goods are produced and materials or components are sourced, and changing labor, environmental and other laws in these countries;
local business practice and political issues that may result in adverse publicity or threatened or actual adverse consumer actions, including boycotts;
compliance with laws and regulations concerning ethical business practices, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act; and
economic, political or other problems in countries from or through which goods are imported.
Political or financial instability, trade restrictions, tariffs, currency exchange rates, labor conditions, congestion and labor issues at major ports, transport capacity and costs, systems issues, problems in third-party distribution and warehousing and other interruptions of the supply chain, compliance with U.S. and foreign laws and regulations and other factors relating to international trade and imported merchandise beyond our control could affect the availability and the price of our inventory. These risks and other factors relating to foreign trade could subject us to liability or hinder our ability to access suitable merchandise on acceptable terms, which could adversely impact our results of operations. In addition, developments in tax policy, such as the disallowance of tax deductions for imported merchandise, or the imposition of tariffs on imported goods, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and liquidity
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Risks Related to Data Privacy and Intellectual Property
We may not be able to adequately establish and protect our intellectual property rights, and the infringement or loss of our intellectual property rights could harm our business.
To establish and protect our intellectual property rights, we rely upon a combination of national, foreign and multinational patent, trademark and trade secret laws, together with licenses, confidentiality agreements and other contractual arrangements. The measures that we take to protect our intellectual property rights may prove inadequate to prevent third parties from infringing or misappropriating our intellectual property. We may need to resort to litigation to enforce or defend our intellectual property rights. If a competitor or collaborator files a patent application claiming technology also claimed by us, or a trademark application claiming a trademark, service mark or trade dress also used by us, in order to protect our rights, we may have to participate in expensive and time consuming opposition or interference proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or a similar foreign agency. Similarly, our intellectual property rights may be challenged by third parties or invalidated through administrative process or litigation. The costs associated with protecting intellectual property rights, including litigation costs, may be material. Furthermore, even if our intellectual property rights are not directly challenged, disputes among third parties could lead to the weakening or invalidation of our intellectual property rights, or our competitors may independently develop technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our technology. Obtaining, protecting and defending intellectual property rights can be time consuming and expensive, and may require us to incur substantial costs, including the diversion of the time and resources of management and technical personnel.
Moreover, the laws of certain foreign countries in which we operate or may operate in the future do not protect, and the governments of certain foreign countries do not enforce, intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws and government of the U.S., which may negate our competitive or technological advantages in such markets. Also, some of the technology underlying our products is the subject of nonexclusive licenses from third parties. As a result, this technology could be made available to our competitors at any time. If we are unable to establish and then adequately protect our intellectual property rights, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We license various trademarks, trade names and patents from third parties for certain of our products. These licenses generally place marketing obligations on us and require us to pay fees and royalties based on net sales or profits. Typically, these licenses may be terminated if we fail to satisfy certain minimum sales obligations or if we breach the terms of the license. The termination of these licensing arrangements, failure to renew or enter into a new agreement on acceptable terms could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. When our right to use these trademarks, brand names and logos expires, we may not be able to maintain or enjoy comparable name recognition or status under our new brand. If we are unable to successfully manage the transition of our business to new brands, our reputation among our customers could be adversely affected, and our revenue and profitability could decline.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our proprietary information and know-how, the value of our technology, products and services could be harmed significantly.
We rely on trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary information in operating our business. If this information is not adequately protected, then it may be disclosed or used in an unauthorized manner. To the extent that consultants, key employees or other third parties apply technological information independently developed by them or by others to our proposed products, disputes may arise as to the proprietary rights to such information, which may not be resolved in our favor. The risk that other parties may breach confidentiality agreements or that our trade secrets become known or independently discovered by competitors, could harm us by enabling our competitors, who may have greater experience and financial resources, to copy or use our trade secrets and other proprietary information in the advancement of their products, methods or technologies. The disclosure of our trade secrets would impair our competitive position, thereby weakening demand for our products or services and harming our ability to maintain or increase our customer base.
Claims by third parties that we are infringing their intellectual property and other litigation could adversely affect our business.
From time to time in the past we have been subject to claims that we are infringing the intellectual property of others. We currently are the subject of such claims and it is possible that third parties will assert infringement claims against us in the future. An adverse finding against us in these or similar trademark or other intellectual property litigations may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such claims, with or without merit, could be time consuming and expensive, and may require us to incur substantial costs, including the diversion of the resources of management and technical personnel, cause product delays or require us to enter into licensing or other agreements in order to secure continued access to necessary or desirable intellectual property. If we are deemed to be infringing a third-party’s intellectual property and are unable to continue using that intellectual property as we had been, our business and results of operations could be harmed if we are unable to successfully develop non-infringing alternative intellectual property on a timely basis or license non-infringing alternatives or substitutes, if any exist, on commercially reasonable terms. In addition, an unfavorable ruling in intellectual property litigation could subject us to significant liability, as well as require us to cease developing, manufacturing or selling the affected products or using the affected processes or trademarks. Any significant restriction on our proprietary or licensed intellectual property that impedes our ability to develop and commercialize our products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A cybersecurity breach or failure of one or more key information technology systems could have a material adverse impact on our business or reputation. 
We rely extensively on information technology (IT) systems, networks and services, including internet sites, data hosting and processing facilities and tools and other hardware, software and technical applications and platforms, some of which are managed, hosted, provided and/or used by third-parties or their vendors, to assist in conducting our business.
Our IT systems have been, and will likely continue to be, subject to computer viruses or other malicious codes, unauthorized access attempts, phishing and other cyber-attacks. We continue to assess potential threats and make investments seeking to address these threats, including monitoring of networks and systems and upgrading skills, employee training and security policies for the Company and its third-party providers. However, because the techniques used in these attacks change frequently and may be difficult to detect for periods of time, we may face difficulties in anticipating and implementing adequate preventative measures. To date, we have seen no material impact on our business or operations from these attacks; however, we cannot guarantee that our security efforts will prevent breaches or breakdowns to our or our third-party providers’ databases or systems. If the IT systems, networks or service providers we rely upon fail to function properly, or if we or one of our third-party providers suffer a loss, significant unavailability of or disclosure of our business or stakeholder information, and our business continuity plans do not effectively address these failures on a timely basis, we may be exposed to reputational, competitive and business harm as well as litigation and regulatory action. The costs and operational consequences of responding to breaches and implementing remediation measures could be significant.
Disruption or failures of our information technology systems could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our IT systems are susceptible to security breaches, operational data loss, general disruptions in functionality, and may not be compatible with new technology. We depend on our IT systems for the effectiveness of our operations and to interface with our customers, as well as to maintain financial records and accuracy. Disruption or failures of our IT systems could impair our ability to effectively and timely provide our services and products and maintain our financial records, which could damage our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business.
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Our actual or perceived failure to adequately protect personal data could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A variety of state, national, foreign, and international laws and regulations apply to the collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure, transfer, and other processing of personal data. These privacy and data protection-related laws and regulations are evolving, with new or modified laws and regulations proposed and implemented frequently and existing laws and regulations subject to new or different interpretations. Compliance with these laws and regulations can be costly and can delay or impede the development of new products.
Our actual or alleged failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or to protect personal data, could result in enforcement actions and significant penalties against us, which could result in negative publicity, increase our operating costs, subject us to claims or other remedies and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are subject to data security and privacy risks that could negatively affect our results, operations or reputation.
In addition to our own sensitive and proprietary business information, we handle transactional and personal information about our customers, suppliers and vendors. Hackers and data thieves are increasingly sophisticated and operate social engineering, such as phishing, and large-scale, complex automated attacks that can evade detection for long periods of time. Any breach of our or our service providers' network, or other vendor systems, may result in the loss of confidential business and financial data, misappropriation of our consumers', users' or employees' personal information or a disruption of our business. Any of these outcomes could have a material adverse effect on our business, including unwanted media attention, impairment of our consumer and customer relationships, damage to our reputation; resulting in lost sales and consumers, fines, lawsuits, or significant legal and remediation expenses. We also may need to expend significant resources to protect against, respond to and/or redress problems caused by any breach.
In addition, we must comply with increasingly complex and rigorous regulatory standards enacted to protect business and personal data in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere. For example, the European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”), which became effective on May 25, 2018, and California passed the California Consumer Privacy Act (the "CCPA"), which became effective on January 1, 2020. These laws impose additional obligations on companies such as ours regarding the handling of personal data and provides certain individual privacy rights to persons whose data is stored. Compliance with existing, proposed and recently enacted laws (including implementation of the privacy and process enhancements called for under GDPR and CCPA and regulations can be costly; any failure to comply with these regulatory standards could subject us to legal and reputational risks. Misuse of or failure to secure personal information could also result in violation of data privacy laws and regulations, proceedings against the Company by governmental entities or others, damage to our reputation and credibility and could have a negative impact on revenues and profits.
Risks Related to Litigation and Regulatory Compliance
Class action and derivative action lawsuits and other investigations, regardless of their merits, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We and certain of our officers and directors have been named in the past, and, may be named in the future, as defendants of class action and derivative action lawsuits. In the past, we have also received requests for information from government authorities. Regardless of their subject matter or merits, class action lawsuits and other government investigations may result in significant cost to us, which may not be covered by insurance, may divert the attention of management or may otherwise have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to a number of claims and litigation and may be subject to future claims and litigation, any of which may adversely affect our business.
From time to time in the past we have been subject to a variety of claims and litigation and we may in the future be subject to additional claims and litigation (including class action lawsuits). For instance, following periods of volatility in the market price of our stock, we have become subject to the class action shareholder litigation. We are also subject to various other litigation and claims on a variety of matters. Based on the information currently available, we believe that our ultimate liability for the matters or proceedings presently pending against the Company will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business or financial condition. But, regardless of their merits, lawsuits (including class action lawsuits) may result in significant cost to the Company that may not be covered by insurance and may divert attention of management or may otherwise have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operation. See Note 20 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere for further discussion over material claims and litigation.
The Company may be subject to product liability claims and product recalls, which could negatively impact its profitability.
In the ordinary course of our business, the Company may be named as a defendant in lawsuits involving product liability claims. In any such proceedings, plaintiffs may seek to recover large and sometimes unspecified amounts of damages, and the matters may remain unresolved for several years. Any such matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows if we are unable to successfully defend against or settle these matters or if our insurance coverage is insufficient to satisfy any judgments against us or settlement related to these matters. The Company sells perishable treats for animal consumption, which involves risks such as product contamination or spoilage, product tampering, and other adulteration of food products. The Company may be subject to liability if the consumption of any of its products causes injury, illness, or death. In addition, the Company will voluntarily recall products in the event of contamination or damage. For example, on June 10, 2017, the Company initiated a voluntary safety recall of various rawhide chew products for dogs sold by the Company’s GPC segment due to possible chemical contamination. The costs of the recall negatively impacted Net Sales, Gross Margin, and Adjusted EBITDA in the GPC segment in fiscal 2017 and in fiscal 2018. A significant product liability judgment or a widespread product recall may negatively impact the Company’s sales and profitability for a period of time depending on product availability, competitive reaction, and consumer attitudes. Even if a product liability claim is unsuccessful or is not fully pursued, the negative publicity surrounding any assertion that Company products caused illness or injury could adversely affect the Company’s reputation with existing and potential customers and its corporate and brand image. Although we have product liability insurance coverage and an excess umbrella policy, our insurance policies may not provide coverage for certain, or any, claims against us or may not be sufficient to cover all possible liabilities. We may not be able to maintain such insurance on acceptable terms, if at all, in the future. See Note 20 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere for further discussion on product liability and product recalls.
Agreements, transactions and litigation involving or resulting from the activities of our predecessor and its former subsidiaries may subject us to future claims or litigation that could materially adversely impact our capital resources.
The Company was formerly known as HRG, which is the successor to Zapata Corporation, which was a holding company engaged, through its subsidiaries, in a number of business activities and over the course of HRG’s existence, acquired and disposed of a number of businesses. The activities of such entities may subject us to future claims or litigation regardless of the merit of such claims or litigation and the defenses available to us. The time and expense that we may be required to dedicate to such matters may be material to us and our subsidiaries and may adversely impact our capital resources. In certain instances, we may have continuing obligations pursuant to certain of these transactions, including obligations to indemnify other parties to agreements, and may be subject to risks resulting from these transactions.
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We may incur material capital and other costs due to environmental liabilities.
We are subject to a broad range of federal, state, local, foreign and multi-national laws and regulations relating to the environment. These include laws and regulations that govern:
discharges to the air, water and land;
the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous substances and wastes; and
remediation of contamination associated with release of hazardous substances at our facilities and at off-site disposal locations.
Risk of environmental liability is inherent in our business. As a result, material environmental costs may arise in the future. In particular, we may incur capital and other costs to comply with increasingly stringent environmental laws and enforcement policies, such as the EU Directives: Restriction of the Use of Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment and Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment discussed above. Our international operations may expose us to risks related to compliance with the laws and regulations of foreign countries. See the risk factor Our international operations may expose us to risks related to compliance with the laws and regulations of foreign countries included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Moreover, there are adopted and proposed international accords and treaties, as well as federal, state and local laws and regulations, that would attempt to control or limit the causes of climate change, including the effect of greenhouse gas emissions on the environment. In the event that the U.S. government or foreign governments enact new climate change laws or regulations or make changes to existing laws or regulations, compliance with applicable laws or regulations may result in increased manufacturing costs for our products, such as by requiring investment in new pollution control equipment or changing the ways in which certain of our products are made. We may incur some of these costs directly and others may be passed on to us from our third-party suppliers. Although we believe that we are substantially in compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations at our facilities, we may not always be in compliance with such laws and regulations or any new laws and regulations in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
From time to time, we have been required to address the effect of historic activities on the environmental condition of our properties or former properties. We have not conducted invasive testing at all of our facilities to identify all potential environmental liability risks. Given the age of our facilities and the nature of our operations, material liabilities may arise in the future in connection with our current or former facilities. If previously unknown contamination of property underlying or in the vicinity of our manufacturing facilities is discovered, we could be required to incur material unforeseen expenses. If this occurs, it may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We are currently engaged in investigative or remedial projects at a few of our facilities and any liabilities arising from such investigative or remedial projects at such facilities may have a material effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, in connection with certain business acquisitions, we have assumed, and in connection with future acquisitions may assume, certain potential environmental liabilities. To the extent we have not identified such environmental liabilities or to the extent the indemnifications obtained from our counterparties are insufficient to cover such environmental liabilities, these environmental liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are also subject to proceedings related to our disposal of industrial and hazardous material at off-site disposal locations or similar disposals made by other parties for which we are responsible as a result of our relationship with such other parties. These proceedings are under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) or similar state or foreign jurisdiction laws that hold persons who “arranged for” the disposal or treatment of such substances strictly liable for costs incurred in responding to the release or threatened release of hazardous substances from such sites, regardless of fault or the lawfulness of the original disposal. Liability under CERCLA is typically joint and several, meaning that a liable party may be responsible for all of the costs incurred in investigating and remediating contamination at a site. We occasionally are identified by federal or state governmental agencies as being a potentially responsible party for response actions contemplated at an off-site facility. At the existing sites where we have been notified of our status as a potentially responsible party, it is either premature to determine if our potential liability, if any, will be material or we do not believe that our liability, if any, will be material. We may be named as a potentially responsible party under CERCLA or similar state or foreign jurisdiction laws in the future for other sites not currently known to us, and the costs and liabilities associated with these sites may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
It is difficult to quantify with certainty the potential financial impact of actions regarding expenditures for environmental matters, particularly remediation, and future capital expenditures for environmental control equipment. See Note 20 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for further discussion on estimated liabilities arising from such environmental matters. Nevertheless, based upon the information currently available, we believe that our ultimate liability arising from such environmental matters should not be material to our business or financial condition.
Compliance with various public health, consumer protection and other regulations applicable to our products and facilities could increase our cost of doing business and expose us to additional requirements with which we may be unable to comply.
Certain of our products sold through, and facilities operated under, each of our business segments are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the United States Department of Agriculture or other federal or state consumer protection and product safety agencies and are subject to the regulations such agencies enforce, as well as by similar state, foreign and multinational agencies and regulations. For example, in the U.S., all products containing pesticides must be registered with the EPA and, in many cases, similar state and foreign agencies before they can be manufactured or sold. Our inability to obtain, or the cancellation of, any registration could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The severity of the effect would depend on which products were involved, whether another product could be substituted and whether our competitors were similarly affected. We attempt to anticipate regulatory developments and maintain registrations of, and access to, substitute chemicals and other ingredients, but we may not always be able to avoid or minimize these risks.
As a distributor of consumer products in the U.S., certain of our products are also subject to the Consumer Product Safety Act, which empowers the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (the “Consumer Commission”) to exclude from the market products that are found to be unsafe or hazardous. Under certain circumstances, the Consumer Commission could require us to repair, replace or refund the purchase price of one or more of our products, or we may voluntarily do so. Any additional repurchases or recalls of our products could be costly to us and could damage the reputation or the value of our brands. If we are required to remove, or we voluntarily remove our products from the market, our reputation or brands could be tarnished, and we may have large quantities of finished products that could not be sold. Furthermore, failure to timely notify the Consumer Commission of a potential safety hazard can result in significant fines being assessed against us. Additionally, laws regulating certain consumer products exist in some states, as well as in other countries in which we sell our products, and more restrictive laws and regulations may be adopted in the future.

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Certain of our products and packaging materials are subject to regulations administered by the FDA. Among other things, the FDA enforces statutory prohibitions against misbranded and adulterated products, establishes ingredients and manufacturing procedures for certain products, establishes standards of identity for certain products, determines the safety of products and establishes labeling standards and requirements. In addition, various states regulate these products by enforcing federal and state standards of identity for selected products, grading products, inspecting production facilities and imposing their own labeling requirements.
The Food Quality Protection Act (“FQPA”) established a standard for food-use pesticides, which is that a reasonable certainty of no harm will result from the cumulative effect of pesticide exposures. Under the FQPA, the EPA is evaluating the cumulative effects from dietary and non-dietary exposures to pesticides. The pesticides in certain of our products that are sold through our H&G business continue to be evaluated by the EPA as part of this program. It is possible that the EPA or a third-party active ingredient registrant may decide that a pesticide we use in our products will be limited or made unavailable to us. We cannot predict the outcome or the severity of the effect of the EPA’s continuing evaluations of active ingredients used in our products.
In addition, the use of certain pesticide products that are sold through our H&G business may, among other things, be regulated by various local, state, federal and foreign environmental and public health agencies. These regulations may require that only certified or professional users apply the product, that users post notices on properties where products have been or will be applied or that certain ingredients may not be used. Compliance with such public health regulations could increase our cost of doing business and expose us to additional requirements with which we may be unable to comply.
The United States Toxic Substances Control Act (“TSCA”) was amended in 2016, and the EPA is currently evaluating additional chemicals for regulation under that amended law. Certain of our products may be manufactured using chemicals or other ingredients that may be subject to regulation under current TSCA regulations, and other chemicals or ingredients may be regulated under the law in the future. We do not expect that compliance with current or future TSCA regulations will cause us to incur expenditures that are material to our business, financial condition or results of operations; however, it is possible that our future liability could be material.
The fish sold under the GloFish brand can be classified as an intragenic or transgenic species due to the addition of their bioluminescent genes, which means the FDA has the authority to regulate as the luminescence is caused by intentionally altered genomic DNA. Additional regulatory agencies, including the EPA, as well as agencies in U.S. and foreign states have authority to regulate these types of species. It is possible that the EPA, FDA, another U.S. federal agency, a U.S. state, or a foreign agency could in the future seek to exercise authority over the distribution and/or sale of GloFish brand fish. We will continue to monitor the development of any regulations that might apply to our bioluminescent fish.
Certain of our products may be regulated under programs within the United States, Canada, or in other countries that may require that those products and the associated product packaging be recycled or managed for disposal through a designated recycling program. Some programs are funded through assessment of a fee on the manufacturer and suppliers, including the Company. We do not expect that such programs will cause us to incur expenditures that are material to our business, financial condition or results of operations; however, it is possible that our future liability could be material.
Any failure to comply with these laws or regulations, or the terms of applicable environmental permits, could result in us incurring substantial costs, including fines, penalties and other civil and criminal sanctions or the prohibition of sales of our pest control products. Environmental law requirements and the enforcement thereof, change frequently, have tended to become more stringent over time and could require us to incur significant expenses.
Most federal, state and local authorities require certification by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc. (“UL”), an independent, not-for-profit corporation engaged in the testing of products for compliance with certain public safety standards, or other safety regulation certification prior to marketing electrical appliances. Foreign jurisdictions also have regulatory authorities overseeing the safety of consumer products. Our products may not meet the specifications required by these authorities. A determination that any of our products are not in compliance with these rules and regulations could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants.
Public perceptions that some of the products we produce and market are not safe could adversely affect us.
On occasion, customers have alleged that some products failed to perform up to expectations or have caused damage or injury to individuals or property. Public perception that any of our products are not safe, whether justified or not, could impair our reputation, damage our brand names and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we rely on certain third-party trademarks, brand names and logos of which we do not have exclusive use of. Public perception that any such third-party trademarks, brand names and logos used by us are not safe, whether justified or not, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets or other long-term assets become impaired, we will be required to record additional impairment charges, which may be significant.
A significant portion of our long-term assets consist of goodwill, other indefinite-lived intangible assets and finite-lived intangible assets recorded as a result of past acquisitions as well as through fresh start reporting. We do not amortize goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, but rather review them for impairment on a periodic basis or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable. We consider whether circumstances or conditions exist which suggest that the carrying value of our goodwill and other long-lived intangible assets might be impaired. If such circumstances or conditions exist, further steps are required in order to determine whether the carrying value of each of the individual assets exceeds its fair value. If analysis indicates that an individual asset’s carrying value does exceed its fair value, the next step is to record a loss equal to the excess of the individual asset’s carrying value over its fair value.
The steps required by GAAP entail significant amounts of judgment and subjectivity. Events and changes in circumstances that may indicate that there may be an impairment and which may indicate that interim impairment testing is necessary include, but are not limited to: strategic decisions to exit a business or dispose of an asset made in response to changes in economic, political and competitive conditions; the impact of the economic environment on the customer base and on broad market conditions that drive valuation considerations by market participants; our internal expectations with regard to future revenue growth and the assumptions we make when performing impairment reviews; a significant decrease in the market price of our assets; a significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which our assets are used; a significant adverse change in legal factors or the business climate that could affect our assets; an accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition of an asset; and significant changes in the cash flows associated with an asset. As a result of such circumstances, we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings in our financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets or other long-term assets is determined. Any such impairment charges could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. See Note 11 – Goodwill and Intangible Assets in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for further detail.

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The successful execution of our operational efficiency and multi-year restructuring initiatives are important to the long-term growth of our business.
We continue to engage in targeted restructuring initiatives to align our business operations in response to current and anticipated future market conditions and investment strategy. We will evaluate opportunities for additional initiatives to restructure or reorganize the business across our operating segments and functions with a focus on areas of strategic growth and optimizing operational efficiency. Significant risks associated with these actions may impair our ability to achieve the anticipated cost reduction or may disrupt our business including delays in shipping, implementation of workforce, redundant costs, and failure to meet operational targets. In addition, our ability to achieve the anticipated cost savings and other benefits from these actions within the expected timeframe is subject to many estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions are subject to significant economic, competitive and other uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. If these estimates and assumptions are incorrect, experience delays, or if other unforeseen events occur, our business and results of operation could be adversely affected. Refer to Note 5 - Restructuring and Related Charges in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for additional detail over restructuring related activity.
Risks Related to Investment in our Common Stock
Our Restated Bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our restated bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty, any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws, any action to interpret, apply, enforce, or determine the validity of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Certain provisions of our charter, bylaws, and of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) have anti-takeover effects and could delay, discourage, defer or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt that a stockholder might consider to be in the stockholder’s best interests.

Certain provisions of our charter and bylaws and the DGCL may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in control if our board of directors determines that such changes in control are not in the best interests of the Company and its stockholders. Such provisions include, among other things, those that:

provide for a classified board of directors with staggered three-year terms;
authorize the board of directors to issue preferred shares and to determine the terms, including the number of shares, voting powers, redemption provisions, dividend rates, liquidation preferences and conversion rights, of those shares, without stockholder approval;
permit the removal of directors by the stockholders only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock;
opt in to Section 203 of the DGCL, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any interested stockholder (generally speaking a stockholder who holds 15% or more of our voting stock) for three years from the date such stockholder becomes an interested stockholder unless certain conditions are met; and
subject to certain exceptions, prohibit any person from acquiring shares of our common stock if such person is, or would become as a result of the acquisition, a “Substantial Holder” (as defined in our charter).

These provisions may frustrate or prevent attempts by stockholders to cause a change in control of the Company or to replace members of its board of directors.
Even though the Company’s common stock is currently traded on the NYSE, it has less liquidity than many other stocks quoted on a national securities exchange.
The trading volume in the Company’s common stock on the NYSE has been relatively low when compared with larger companies listed on the NYSE or other stock exchanges. Because of this, it may be more difficult for stockholders to sell a substantial number of shares for the same price at which stockholders could sell a smaller number of shares. We cannot predict the effect, if any, that future sales of the Company’s common stock in the market, or the availability of shares of its common stock for sale in the market, will have on the market price of the Company’s common stock. We can give no assurance that sales of substantial amounts of the Company’s common stock in the market, or the potential for large amounts of sales in the market, would not cause the price of the Company’s common stock to decline or impair the Company’s future ability to raise capital through sales of its common stock. Furthermore, because of the limited market and generally low volume of trading in the Company’s common stock that could occur, the share price of its common stock could be more likely to be affected by broad market fluctuations, general market conditions, fluctuations in our operating results, changes in the market's perception of our business, and announcements made by the Company, its competitors or parties with whom the Company has business relationships. The lack of liquidity in the Company’s common stock may also make it difficult for us to issue additional securities for financing or other purposes, or to otherwise arrange for any financing we may need in the future. In addition, we may experience other adverse effects, including, without limitation, the loss of confidence in us by current and prospective suppliers, customers, employees and others with whom we have or may seek to initiate business relationships.

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The market price of the Company’s common stock is likely to be highly volatile and could fluctuate widely in price in response to various factors, many of which are beyond our control.
Factors that may influence the price of the common stock include, without limitation, the following:
loss of any of our key customers or suppliers;
additions or departures of key personnel;
sales of common stock;
our ability to execute our business plan;
announcements and consummations of business acquisitions;
operating results that fall below expectations;
additional issuances of common stock;
low volume of sales due to concentrated ownership of common stock;
intellectual property disputes;
industry developments;
economic and other external factors; and
period-to-period fluctuations in our financial results.
In addition, the securities markets have from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that are unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may also materially and adversely affect the market price of the Company’s common stock. You should also be aware that price volatility might be worse if the trading volume of shares of the common stock is low.
The issuance of the shares of the Company’s common stock in connection with the Spectrum Merger (as defined in Note 4 – Acquisitions in Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report) has materially increased the risk that the Company could experience an “ownership change” for U.S. federal income tax purposes before July 2021, which could materially affect the Company’s ability to utilize its NOLs and adversely impact the Company’s results of operations.
The Company has substantial deferred tax assets related to NOLs and tax credits (together with the NOLs, the “Tax Attributes”) for U.S. federal and state income tax purposes, which the Company currently expects to be available to offset future taxable income. The Company’s ability to utilize or realize the current carrying value of such Tax Attributes may be impacted, as result of a future “ownership change”, by certain events, including annual limits imposed under Section 382 of the Code, proposed regulations under Section 382 issued during Fiscal 2019 that may become final or applicable provisions of state law. The issuance of shares of the Company’s common stock in connection with the Spectrum Merger materially increased the risk that the Company could experience an “ownership change” in the future as a result of future issuances of shares or certain direct or indirect changes in the ownership of such shares or other securities (e.g., as a result of a disposition of shares currently owned by existing “5% stockholders”).
An “ownership change” is generally defined as a cumulative increase of 50 percentage points or more (by value) in the ownership positions of certain “5% stockholders” of a corporation during a rolling three year period. Upon an “ownership change,” a corporation generally is subject to an annual limit on the ability to utilize pre-change Tax Attributes to offset future taxable income and gain in an amount equal to the value of the corporation’s market capitalization immediately before the “ownership change” multiplied by the adjusted long-term tax-exempt rate set by the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”). Since NOLs generally may be carried forward for up to 20 years, any such annual limitation may result in the inability to utilize certain pre-change Tax Attributes.
In the event an “ownership change” were to occur, the Company could lose the ability to use a significant portion of its Tax Attributes. Any permanent loss could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.
The US Treasury Department and the IRS in September 2019 issued Proposed Regulations under Section 382 that would significantly change the methods available to calculate use of pre-change Tax Attributes. Should these regulations be finalized, and the Company experience an ownership change, the Company could lose the ability to use significantly more Tax Attributes than under current rules.
Additional issuances of the Company’s common stock may result in dilution to its existing stockholders.
Under our 2011 equity incentive plan adopted by the shareholders in 2011, called the Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Award Plan formerly known as the HRG Group, Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Award Plan (the “2011 Equity Plan”), a total of 2.7 million shares of common stock of the Company, net of cancellations, were authorized to be issued. As of September 30, 2020, we have issued 1.9 million restricted stock units (or the equivalent number of shares of common stock upon the lapsing of the applicable restrictions) under the 2011 Equity Plan and have a remaining authorization to issue up to a total of 0.8 million shares of our common stock, or options or restricted stock units exercisable for shares of common stock (following the conversion at the time of the Spectrum Merger of the remaining authorized but unissued shares at the Merger conversion ratio).
Under the equity incentive plan approved by the Spectrum Legacy shareholders on March 1, 2011, called the Spectrum Brands, Legacy, Inc. Amended and Restated 2011 Omnibus Equity Award Plan formerly known as the Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Award Plan (the “Spectrum 2011 Equity Plan”), 4.6 million shares of common stock of the Company, net of cancellations, were authorized to be issued. At the 2014 annual shareholders meeting, the 2011 Equity Plan was amended to increase the shares issuable by 1.0 million, and further amended at the 2016 annual shareholders meeting to increase the shares by 1.5 million; therefore, a total of 7.1 million shares, net of cancellations, are authorized to be issued under such plan. As of September 30, 2020, we have issued 6.9 million restricted stock units (or the equivalent number of shares of common stock upon the lapsing of the applicable restrictions) under the 2011 Plan and have a remaining authorization to issue up to a total of 0.2 million shares of our common stock, or options or restricted stock units exercisable for shares of common stock. These remaining authorized Spectrum Legacy shares of common stock were converted on a one-for-one basis in connection with the Merger into shares of SBH common stock, and the Spectrum 2011 Equity Plan was assumed by the Company.
On July 28, 2020 the Company's shareholders approved the Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. 2020 Omnibus Equity Plan pursuant to which 1.2 million shares of common stock were authorized to be issued. As of September 30, 2020, no shares of common stock have been issued under the Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. 2020 Omnibus Equity Plan.
In addition, the Company’s board of directors has the authority to issue additional shares of capital stock to provide additional financing or for other purposes in the future. The issuance of any such shares or exercise of any such options may result in a reduction of the book value or market price of the outstanding shares of common stock. If we do issue any such additional shares or any such options are exercised, such issuance or exercise also will cause a reduction in the proportionate ownership and voting power of all other stockholders. As a result of such dilution, the proportionate ownership interest and voting power of a holder of shares of common stock could be decreased.

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ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
The following lists our principal owned or leased administrative, manufacturing, packaging, and distribution facilities at September 30, 2020:
Corporate & Administrative
LocationFunction / UseOwned / Leased
U.S. Locations
Middleton, WisconsinCorporate Headquarters and HPC HeadquartersLeased
Earth City, MissouriGPC and H&G HeadquartersLeased
Lake Forest, CaliforniaHHI HeadquartersLeased

Shared Operations & Sales Offices
LocationFunction / UseOwned / Leased
U.S. Locations
Alpharetta, GeorgiaPlatform salesLeased
Bentonville, ArkansasPlatform salesLeased
Minneapolis, MinnesotaPlatform salesLeased
Mooresville, North CarolinaPlatform salesLeased
Moorpark, CaliforniaPlatform SalesLeased
Phoenix, ArizonaPlatform salesLeased
Palmas Catano, Puerto RicoPlatform salesLeased
Miramar, FloridaLATAM Shared OperationsLeased
Non-U.S. Locations
Mississauga, CanadaCanada Shared OperationsLeased
Concord, CanadaDistributionLeased
Mentone, AustraliaAPAC Shared Operations & DistributionLeased
Shenzhen, ChinaDistribution & Shared OperationsLeased
Singapore, SingaporePlatform SalesLeased
Penrose, New ZealandPlatform SalesLeased
Yokohama, JapanPlatform SalesLeased
Sulzbach, GermanyEMEA Shared OperationsLeased
Wombourne, UKDistributionLeased
Paris, FrancePlatform SalesOwned
Milan, ItalyPlatform SalesLeased
Warsaw, PolandPlatform SalesLeased
West Byfleet, UKPlatform SalesLeased
Moscow, RussiaPlatform SalesLeased
Barcelona, SpainPlatform SalesLeased
Bucharest, RomaniaPlatform SalesLeased
Ballymount, IrelandPlatform SalesLeased
Lisbon, PortugalPlatform SalesLeased
Utrecht, NetherlandsPlatform SalesLeased
Mechelen, BelgiumPlatform SalesLeased
Stockholm, SwedenPlatform SalesLeased
Mexico City, MexicoPlatform SalesLeased
Bogota, ColombiaPlatform SalesLeased
Buenos Aires, ArgentinaPlatform SalesLeased
El Dorado, PanamaPlatform SalesLeased
Huechuraba, ChilePlatform SalesLeased
Santiago de Surco, PeruPlatform SalesLeased
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Home & Hardware Improvement (HHI)
LocationFunction / UseOwned / Leased
U.S. Locations
Charlotte, North CarolinaManufacturing & DistributionLeased
Edgerton, KansasDistributionLeased
Houston, TexasManufacturing & DistributionLeased
Lititz, PennsylvaniaManufacturing & DistributionLeased
Denison, TexasManufacturing & DistributionLeased/Owned
Birmingham, AlabamaManufacturing & DistributionLeased
Dallas, TexasManufacturing & DistributionLeased
Elkhart, IndianaManufacturing & DistributionLeased
Eastvale, CaliforniaManufacturing & DistributionLeased
Wyomissing, PennsylvaniaCustomer ServiceLeased
Non-U.S. Locations
Mexicali, MexicoManufacturingLeased
Chia-Yi, TaiwanManufacturing & DistributionLeased
Nogales, MexicoManufacturingOwned
Subic Bay, PhilippinesManufacturingOwned
Xiamen, ChinaManufacturingLeased
Xiaolan, ChinaManufacturingLeased
Home & Personal Care (HPC)
LocationFunction / UseOwned / Leased
U.S. Locations
DeForest, WisconsinDistributionLeased
Redlands, CaliforniaDistributionLeased
Non-U.S. Locations
Nuremberg, GermanyDistributionLeased
Manchester, UKUK Shared OperationsOwned
Global Pet Care (GPC)
LocationFunction / UseOwned / Leased
U.S. Locations
Blacksburg, VirginiaManufacturingOwned/Leased
Bridgeton, MissouriManufacturingLeased
Noblesville, IndianaManufacturingOwned
Painesville, OhioManufacturingLeased
Edwardsville, IllinoisDistributionLeased
Riverview, FloridaResearch & DevelopmentOwned
Non-U.S. Locations
Melle, GermanyManufacturing & DistributionLeased
Coevorden, NetherlandsManufacturing & DistributionLeased
Home & Garden (H&G)
LocationFunction / UseOwned / Leased
U.S. Locations
St. Louis, MissouriManufacturingLeased
Edwardsville, IllinoisDistributionLeased
We also contract with third parties to operate distribution centers, sales and other administrative offices throughout the world in support of our business. We believe that our existing facilities are suitable and adequate for our present purposes and that the productive capacity in such facilities is substantially being utilized or we have plans to utilize it.
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ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We have disclosed all matters of legal proceedings believed to have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity or cash flows in the notes to our consolidated financial statements. See Note 20 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for additional detail.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable
PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANTS’ COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
SBH’s common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “SPB”. Effective July 13, 2018, SBH completed the planned Spectrum Merger. Prior to the Spectrum Merger, SBH was a holding company, doing business as HRG, conducting its operations principally through its majority owned subsidiaries, and trading on the NYSE under the symbol “HRG”. See Note 4 – Acquisitions in Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for more information on the Spectrum Merger.
As of November 16, 2020, there were approximately 1,268 holders of record based upon data provided by the transfer agent for the SBH’s common stock. This number does not include the stockholders for whom shares are held in a “nominee” or “street” name.
SB/RH is a wholly-owned subsidiary of SBH and accordingly, there is no established public trading market for its equity securities. As of November 16, 2020, there is only one record holder of its equity securities. During the years ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, SB/RH paid dividends of $241.0 million and $717.4 million, respectively, to its parent company, SBH. Certain restrictive covenants within the Company’s debt facilities impose limitations on payment of dividends by SB/RH’s subsidiaries to SB/RH and to SBH.
Equity Plans
Equity based incentive and performance compensation awards provided to employees, directors, officers and consultants were issued pursuant to the following awards plans:
HRG Group, Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Award Plans as approved and amended by the HRG Legacy stockholders (the "HRG Equity Plan").
Harbinger Group, Inc. 2014 Warrant Plan, as approved by the HRG Legacy stockholders (the "HRG Warrant Plan").
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Awards Plan as approved and amended by the Spectrum Legacy stockholders, (the "Spectrum Equity Plan").
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. 2020 Omnibus Equity Plan, as approved by the Spectrum stockholders (the "2020 Equity Plan").
The following is a summary of the authorized and available shares per the respective plans:
(number of shares, in millions)AuthorizedAvailable
HRG Group 2011 Omnibus Equity Award Plans2.7 0.8 
Harbinger Group, Inc. 2014 Warrant Plan3.0 — 
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. 2011 Omnibus Equity Awards Plan7.1 0.2 
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. 2020 Omnibus Equity Plan1.2 1.2 
Effective at the close of the Spectrum Merger, each stock option, warrant, and restricted stock award granted under the HRG Equity Plan and HRG Warrant Plan that was outstanding and unvested immediately prior to the closing became fully vested and exercisable. Each exercisable award that was unexercised was adjusted (including to give effect to the reverse stock split) and remains outstanding, subject to the same terms and conditions as applied in the corresponding awards. Each restricted stock award became fully vested and treated as a share of HRG common stock for purposes of the reverse stock split and Spectrum Merger.
Further, effective at the close of the Spectrum Merger, each restricted stock award, restricted stock unit and performance stock unit under the Spectrum Equity Plan, whether vested or unvested, were assumed by SBH and automatically converted into a corresponding equity-based award in SBH with the right to hold or acquire shares of common stock equal to the number of shares of Spectrum Legacy common stock previously underlying such award. Each new award is subject to the same terms and conditions as the corresponding Spectrum Legacy award. SBH assumed all rights and obligation in respect of each equity-based plan of Spectrum Legacy. Refer to Note 19 – Share Based Compensation in Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statement included elsewhere in this Annual Report, for additional information.

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Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
On July 24, 2018, the Company’s board of directors authorized a new three-year $1 billion common stock repurchase program. The authorization is effective for 36 months. The following summarizes the activity of common stock repurchases under the program for the year ended September 30, 2020:
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
Average
Price Paid
Per Share
Total Number
of Shares Purchased
as Part of Plan
Approximate Dollar Value
of Shares that may
Yet Be Purchased
As of July 24, 2018— $— — $1,000,000,000 
As of September 30, 2018— — — 1,000,000,000 
Quarter ended December 30, 2018— — — 1,000,000,000 
Quarter ended March 31, 20194,610,700 54.22 4,610,700 750,001,219 
Quarter ended June 30, 2019— — — 750,001,219 
As of September 30, 20194,610,700 54.22 4,610,700 750,001,219 
Quarter ended December 29, 20193,030,946 61.91 3,030,946 562,368,245 
Quarter ended March 29, 20203,045,291 55.14 3,045,291 562,368,245 
Quarter ended June 28, 2020— — — 394,436,227 
June 29, 2020 to July 26, 2020— — — 394,436,227 
July 27, 2020 to August 23, 2020— — — 394,436,227 
August 24, 2020 to September 30, 2020— — — 394,436,227 
As of September 30, 202010,686,937 $56.66 10,686,937 $394,436,227 
During the year ended September 30, 2020, the Company also repurchased $9.2 million of common stock in private purchases with employees at the fair value, consisting of 0.1 million of common stock repurchases at an average share price of $62.30 per share, which are not included in the common stock repurchase program summarized above. The repurchase of additional shares in the future will depend upon many factors, including the Company’s financial condition, liquidity and legal requirements, and may use funds received from its divestitures to support the common stock repurchase program.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.

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Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our Common Stock to the cumulative total return of the Russell 1000 Financial Index and Spectrum Peer Group selected in good faith, which is composed of the following companies (alphabetical order): Allegion PLC, Central Garden and Pet Company, Church & Dwight Co., Inc., Edgewell Personal Care Company, Energizer Holdings, Inc., Fortune Brands Home & Security, Inc., Hamilton Beach Brands Holding Company (from 10/2/2017), Helen of Troy Limited, Newell Brands, Inc., Nu Skin Enterprises, Inc., Stanley Black & Decker, Inc., The Clorox Company, and The Scotts Miracle-Gro Company.
The comparison below assumes that $100 was invested in the common stock of SBH from September 30, 2015 until September 30, 2020. The comparison is based upon the closing price of the common stock, as applicable, and assumes the reinvestment of all dividends, if any. The returns of each of the companies in our peer group are weighted according to the respective company’s stock market capitalization at the beginning of each period for which a return is indicated. The stockholder return shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future performance and will not make or endorse any predictions as to future stockholder returns.
https://cdn.kscope.io/aba4eb9eaf3dace06ca99f9c1177a998-spb-20200930_g12.jpg

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ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc.
The following selected historical financial data is derived from SBH’s audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended September 30. The summary has been derived in part from, and should be read in conjunction with, the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company included elsewhere in this Annual Report. As discussed in Note 1 – Description of Business in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report, on January 2, 2019, and January 28, 2019, we completed the sales of our GBL and GAC businesses, respectively, to Energizer. As a result, the Company’s assets and liabilities associated with GBL and GAC have been classified as held for sale in the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Financial Position for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2018, 2017, and 2016, and the respective operations have been classified as discontinued operations in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Income and Statements of Cash Flows for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016. Fidelity & Guaranty Life and Front Street Re (Delaware) Ltd. (collectively “HRG Insurance Operations”) are classified as discontinued operations for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2018, 2017, and 2016. Following the completion of the sale of Compass Production Partners, LP (“Compass”) during the year ended September 30, 2016, HRG no longer held, directly or indirectly, any oil and gas properties and as a result, the results of Compass were presented as discontinued operations for the year ended September 30, 2016.
(in millions, except per share data)2020(1)2019(2)2018(3)2017(4)2016(5)
Statement of Operations Data
Revenues$3,964.2 $3,802.1 $3,808.7 $3,706.5 $3,754.2 
Gross profit1,369.9 1,306.9 1,334.3 1,336.4 1,373.0 
Operating income243.4 72.2 224.2 287.5 321.8 
Interest expense144.5 222.1 264.0 310.4 336.9 
Income (loss) from operations before income taxes155.4 (193.8)(35.7)(27.9)